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Barnes D.K.A.; Bell, J.J. (2002). Coastal sponge communities of the West Indian Ocean: taxonomic affinities, richness and diversity. African Journal of Ecology. 40: 337-349.
Barnes D.K.A.; Bell, J.J.
Coastal sponge communities of the West Indian Ocean: taxonomic affinities, richness and diversity
African Journal of Ecology
40: 337-349
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Sponges assemblages were sampled in four coastal study regions (Malindi, Kenya; Quirimba Archipelago, northern Mozambique; Inhaca Island, Southern Mozambique and Anakao, Madagascar) in the west Indian Ocean. Sponge species were counted inmultiple 0.5m2 quadrats at depths of between 0 and 20m at a number of sites within localities within each region. Despite the relatively small areas sampled, sponge samples comprised a total of 130 species and 70 genera of the classes Demospongiae and Calcarea. Sponges are clearly a major taxon in these regions in terms of numbers of species, percentage cover or biomass, although their ecology in the west Indian Ocean is virtually unknown. Nearly half of the genera, e.g. Iotrochota, found were species with a so-called Tethyan distribution. Most of the other genera were cosmopolitan, e.g. Clathria, but some were coldwater (Coelosphaera), Indo-Australian (Ianthella) or circum-African (Crambe). Many of the species encountered in the present study occurred in at least two study regions, many in more and could occupy large areas of substratum. Some of these, e.g. Xestospongia exigua, are commonly found throughout the Indo-west Paci¢c region where they also occupy much space. The endemicity of the shallow water sponge faunas in East Africa (20^25%) seem to be high within the Indo-Pacific realm but are lower than northern Papua New Guinea. The tropical regions (Kenya and Northern Mozambique) were more speciose than subtropical regions (southern Mozambique and Madagascar) but not signi¢cantly more diverse (Shannon H0). Although latitude was not a major in£uence on sponge community patterns, hard substratum assemblages did form a cline from the tropics to Southern Mozambique, linked by Madagascar. Substratum nature (habitat) was most important in in£uencing the suite and number of species present. Sponge assemblages of soft substrata were much more dissimilar, both within and between habitats, than those on hard substrata. There was a predictable variability in species richness between hard substratum habitats: coral reefs being speciose and caves being less so. Our ¢ndings showed that both patterns and in£uences on species richness may be decoupled from those in£uencing diversity. In our data species richness, but not diversity, showed striking regional and bathymetric trends. In addition, sponge species richness mainly split at coral reef vs. non-reef habitats, whilst diversity divided principally into assemblages on hard and soft substrata.We consider this dichotomy of findings between species richness and diversity values to be important, as these are two principal measures used for the interpretation of biodiversity.
Indian Ocean, Western
Spacial and ecological distribution, Zonation, Microdistribution
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
2015-05-28 16:13:35Z
2018-07-10 12:39:30Z

Adocia atra Pulitzer-Finali, 1993 accepted as Haliclona (Reniera) atra (Pulitzer-Finali, 1993) (additional source)
Axinella carteri (Dendy, 1889) accepted as Stylissa carteri (Dendy, 1889) (additional source)
Biemna fortis (Topsent, 1897) (additional source)
Cinachyrella voeltzkowi (Lendenfeld, 1897) accepted as Cinachyrella arabica (Carter, 1869) (additional source)
Clathria pulcherrima (basis of record)
Ecionemia rotunda Sollas, 1888 accepted as Ecionemia acervus Bowerbank, 1862 (additional source)
Gelliodes incrustans Dendy, 1905 (additional source)
Hymeniacidon conulosa (Dendy, 1922) accepted as Stylissa conulosa (Dendy, 1922) (source of synonymy)
Kallypilidion fascigera (Hentschel, 1912) accepted as Haliclona (Reniera) fascigera (Hentschel, 1912) (additional source)
Laxosuberites arenosus Vacelet & Vasseur, 1971 accepted as Liosina arenosa (Vacelet & Vasseur, 1971) (additional source)
Lissodendoryx arenaria Burton, 1936 represented as Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) arenaria Burton, 1936 (additional source)
Paratetilla Dendy, 1905 (additional source)
Petrosia nigricans Lindgren, 1897 represented as Petrosia (Petrosia) nigricans Lindgren, 1897 (additional source)
Phyllospongia foliascens (Pallas, 1766) (additional source)
Phyllospongia madagascariensis (Hyatt, 1877) accepted as Phyllospongia papyracea (Esper, 1806) (basis of record)
Placospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Plakinastrella Schulze, 1880 (additional source)
Plakortis nigra Lévi, 1953 (additional source)
Rhizochalina incrustans Barnes & Bell, 2002 accepted as Oceanapia incrustata (Dendy, 1922) (original description)
Spirastrella vagabunda Ridley, 1884 accepted as Spheciospongia vagabunda (Ridley, 1884) (additional source)
Strongylamma arenosa (Vacelet & Vasseur, 1971) (additional source)
Stylotella aurantium Kelly-Borges & Bergquist, 1988 accepted as Stylissa massa (Carter, 1887) (additional source)
Xestospongia exigua (Kirkpatrick, 1900) accepted as Neopetrosia chaliniformis (Thiele, 1899) (additional source)
Anakao for Acanthella Schmidt, 1862 
Anakao for Aplysilla sulfurea Schulze, 1878  (inaccurate)
Anakao for Astrosclera willeyana Lister, 1900 
Anakao for Axinella carteri (Dendy, 1889) 
Anakao for Biemna Gray, 1867 
Anakao for Chondrilla nucula Schmidt, 1862  (inaccurate)
Anakao for Ciocalypta Bowerbank, 1862 
Anakao for Clathria Schmidt, 1862 
Anakao for Clathria pulcherrima 
Anakao for Clathrina darwinii (Haeckel, 1870) 
Anakao for Discodermia du Bocage, 1869 
Anakao for Dysidea Johnston, 1842 
Anakao for Ecionemia rotunda Sollas, 1888 
Anakao for Erylus lendenfeldi Sollas, 1888 
Anakao for Haliclona Grant, 1841 
Anakao for Haliclona (Gellius) cymiformis 
Anakao for Hymeniacidon conulosa (Dendy, 1922) 
Anakao for Jaspis Gray, 1867 
Anakao for Mycale imperfecta Baer, 1906 
Anakao for Mycale sulevoidea (Sollas, 1902) 
Anakao for Petrosia Vosmaer, 1885 
Anakao for Phyllospongia dendyi Lendenfeld, 1889 
Anakao for Rhizochalina incrustans Barnes & Bell, 2002 
Anakao for Spirastrella pachyspira Lévi, 1958 
Anakao for Strongylamma arenosa (Vacelet & Vasseur, 1971) 
Anakao for Tethya seychellensis (Wright, 1881) 
Cosmopolitan (World Oceans) for Mycale Gray, 1867 
Delagoa for Crambe crambe (Schmidt, 1862)  (inaccurate)
Delagoa for Petrosia nigricans Lindgren, 1897 
East African Coral Coast for Crambe crambe (Schmidt, 1862)  (inaccurate)
East African Coral Coast for Crambe crambe (Schmidt, 1862)  (inaccurate)
East African Coral Coast for Geodia crustosa Bösraug, 1913 
East African Coral Coast for Geodia crustosa Bösraug, 1913 
East African Coral Coast for Plakortis nigra Lévi, 1953 
East African Coral Coast for Plakortis nigra Lévi, 1953 
East African Coral Coast for Stylotella aurantium Kelly-Borges & Bergquist, 1988 
Inhaca Island for Aplysilla sulfurea Schulze, 1878  (inaccurate)
Inhaca Island for Astrosclera willeyana Lister, 1900 
Inhaca Island for Callyspongia confoederata (sensu Ridley, 1884) 
Inhaca Island for Carteriospongia foliascens (Pallas, 1766) 
Inhaca Island for Ciocalypta Bowerbank, 1862 
Inhaca Island for Clathria pulcherrima 
Inhaca Island for Clathrina darwinii (Haeckel, 1870) 
Inhaca Island for Dysidea Johnston, 1842 
Inhaca Island for Ecionemia rotunda Sollas, 1888 
Inhaca Island for Haliclona Grant, 1841 
Inhaca Island for Hymeniacidon conulosa (Dendy, 1922) 
Inhaca Island for Ircinia ramosa (Keller, 1889) 
Inhaca Island for Jaspis johnstonii (Schmidt, 1862)  (inaccurate)
Inhaca Island for Petrosia Vosmaer, 1885 
Inhaca Island for Phyllospongia madagascariensis (Hyatt, 1877) 
Inhaca Island for Placospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 
Inhaca Island for Rhizochalina incrustans Barnes & Bell, 2002 
Inhaca Island for Tethya seychellensis (Wright, 1881) 
Malindi for Aaptos Gray, 1867 
Malindi for Acanthella Schmidt, 1862 
Malindi for Acanthella klethra Pulitzer-Finali, 1982 
Malindi for Adocia atra Pulitzer-Finali, 1993 
Malindi for Axinella carteri (Dendy, 1889) 
Malindi for Axinyssa topsenti Lendenfeld, 1897 
Malindi for Biemna Gray, 1867 
Malindi for Biemna fortis (Topsent, 1897) 
Malindi for Callyspongia Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 
Malindi for Callyspongia confoederata (sensu Ridley, 1884) 
Malindi for Cinachyrella voeltzkowi (Lendenfeld, 1897) 
Malindi for Ciocalypta Bowerbank, 1862 
Malindi for Clathria Schmidt, 1862 
Malindi for Clathria frondifera (Bowerbank, 1875) 
Malindi for Clathrina darwinii (Haeckel, 1870) 
Malindi for Crambe acuata (Lévi, 1958) 
Malindi for Dysidea Johnston, 1842 
Malindi for Gelliodes incrustans Dendy, 1905 
Malindi for Haliclona Grant, 1841 
Malindi for Hymeniacidon conulosa (Dendy, 1922) 
Malindi for Ianthella basta (Pallas, 1766)  (inaccurate)
Malindi for Iotrochota Ridley, 1884 
Malindi for Ircinia ramosa (Keller, 1889) 
Malindi for Jaspis Gray, 1867 
Malindi for Jaspis johnstonii (Schmidt, 1862)  (inaccurate)
Malindi for Kallypilidion fascigera (Hentschel, 1912) 
Malindi for Petrosia Vosmaer, 1885 
Malindi for Petrosia nigricans Lindgren, 1897 
Malindi for Placospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 
Malindi for Pseudosuberites andrewsi Kirkpatrick, 1900 
Malindi for Spheciospongia florida (Lendenfeld, 1897) 
Malindi for Tedania anhelans (Vio in Olivi, 1792)  (inaccurate)
Malindi for Tedania digitata (Schmidt, 1862)  (inaccurate)
Malindi for Terpios granulosa Bergquist, 1967 
Malindi for Xestospongia testudinaria (Lamarck, 1815) 
Quirimba Archipelago for Aaptos Gray, 1867 
Quirimba Archipelago for Adocia atra Pulitzer-Finali, 1993 
Quirimba Archipelago for Aplysilla sulfurea Schulze, 1878  (inaccurate)
Quirimba Archipelago for Astrosclera willeyana Lister, 1900 
Quirimba Archipelago for Axinella carteri (Dendy, 1889) 
Quirimba Archipelago for Axinyssa topsenti Lendenfeld, 1897 
Quirimba Archipelago for Biemna Gray, 1867 
Quirimba Archipelago for Biemna fortis (Topsent, 1897) 
Quirimba Archipelago for Callyspongia Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 
Quirimba Archipelago for Callyspongia confoederata (sensu Ridley, 1884) 
Quirimba Archipelago for Carteriospongia foliascens (Pallas, 1766) 

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