WoRMS source details

Hooper, J.N.A. (2002). Family Microcionidae Carter, 1875. pp. 432-468. In: Hooper, J.N.A. & Van Soest, R.W.M. (eds.) Systema Porifera. Guide to the classification of sponges. Volume 1 (Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers: New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow).
9015
Hooper, J.N.A.
2002
Family Microcionidae Carter, 1875. pp. 432-468. <i>In</i>: Hooper, J.N.A. & Van Soest, R.W.M. (eds.) Systema Porifera. Guide to the classification of sponges. Volume 1 (Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers: New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow).
Publication
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Microcionidae Carter (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida), including Clathriidae, Ophlitaspongiidae, contains 77 nominal genera of which only 9 genera and 12 subgenera are considered to be valid (one incertae sedis). There are approximately 470 described (valid) species worldwide, living predominantly in shallow waters with a few recorded from deeper seas, and with many other species still collected but remaining undescribed. Microcionids typically have three skeletal regions delineated by the distribution of different structural megascleres: (1) the choanosomal skeleton (with principal monactinal spicules enclosed within spongin fibres and spined monactinal spicules typically echinating fibres; in two groups this is replaced by a basal or axial renieroid skeleton of smooth or acanthose styles or strongyles, with or without echinating spicules); (2) an extra-fibre subectosomal skeleton (with tracts of larger auxilIary monactinal spicules ascending to the surface); (3) and a non-tangential ectosomal skeleton (with smaller auxillary styles forming a surface crust perpendicular to the surface). Megascleres are predominantly smooth ectosomal and choanosomal styles, with some diactinal and acanthose modifications. Microscleres are palmate isochelae, only exceptionally modified to superficial arcuate-like or anchorate-like forms (produced by torsion of the shaft and detachment of alae), and toxas with diverse morphologies including microxea-like and raphidiform toxas in few species. Skeletal structures range from 'hymedesmioid' and 'microcionid' in encrusting taxa, to plumo-reticulate and occasionally axially compressed in some species, but usually irregularly reticulate in most taxa. Occasionally spicules are partially or completely replaced by detritus. Two subfamilies are recognised: Ophlitaspongiinae de Laubenfels (with a secondary renieroid spongin fibre and/or spiculose skeleton overlaying a primary reticulate, plumo-reticulate, plumose or hymedesmioid spiculo-spongin skeleton) and Microcioninae Carter (lacking a secondary renieroid reticulate skeleton, having only a reticulate, plumo-reticulate, plumose hymedesmoid, microcionid or axially compressed primary skeleton).
Systematics, Taxonomy
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
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Aaata Laubenfels, 1930 accepted as Clathria (Microciona) Bowerbank, 1862 (basis of record)
Acarnia Gray, 1867 accepted as Antho (Acarnia) Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Acarnia cliftoni (Bowerbank, 1862) accepted as Antho (Acarnia) frondifera (Lamarck, 1814) (source of synonymy)
Acarniidae Laubenfels, 1936 accepted as Microcionidae Carter, 1875 (basis of record)
Anaata Laubenfels, 1932 accepted as Clathria (Microciona) Bowerbank, 1862 (basis of record)
Anomoclathria Topsent, 1929 accepted as Antho (Antho) Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Antherochalina Lendenfeld, 1887 accepted as Clathria (Clathria) Schmidt, 1862 (basis of record)
Antho Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Antho (Acarnia) Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Antho (Acarnia) arbuscula (Burton, 1959) accepted as Antho (Plocamia) arbuscula (Burton, 1959) (basis of record)
Antho (Acarnia) burtoni (Lévi, 1952) accepted as Antho (Antho) burtoni (Lévi, 1952) (basis of record)
Antho (Acarnia) gymnazusa (Schmidt, 1870) accepted as Antho (Plocamia) gymnazusa (Schmidt, 1870) (redescription)
Antho (Antho) Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Antho (Antho) arcitenens (Topsent, 1892) (basis of record)
Antho (Antho) graceae (Bakus, 1966) (basis of record)
Antho (Antho) involvens (Schmidt, 1864) (basis of record)
Antho (Isopenectya) Hallmann, 1920 (basis of record)
Antho (Isopenectya) chartacea (Whitelegge, 1907) (basis of record)
Antho (Isopenectya) primitiva (Burton, 1935) (basis of record)
Antho (Plocamia) Schmidt, 1870 (additional source)
Anthoarcuata Bakus, 1966 accepted as Antho (Antho) Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Anthoarcuata graceae Bakus, 1966 accepted as Antho (Antho) graceae (Bakus, 1966) (basis of record)
Artemisina Vosmaer, 1885 (basis of record)
Artemisina arcigera (Schmidt, 1870) (basis of record)
Artemisina suberitoides Vosmaer, 1885 accepted as Artemisina arcigera (Schmidt, 1870) (basis of record)
Aulenella Burton & Rao, 1932 accepted as Clathria (Wilsonella) Carter, 1885 (basis of record)
Axocielita de Laubenfels, 1936 accepted as Clathria (Microciona) Bowerbank, 1862 (basis of record)
Axociella Hallmann, 1920 accepted as Clathria (Axosuberites) Topsent, 1893 (basis of record)
Axosuberites Topsent, 1893 accepted as Clathria (Axosuberites) Topsent, 1893 (basis of record)
Axosuberites fauroti Topsent, 1893 accepted as Clathria (Axosuberites) fauroti (Topsent, 1893) (basis of record)
Clathria Schmidt, 1862 (basis of record)
Clathria (Axociella) Hallmann, 1920 accepted as Clathria (Axosuberites) Topsent, 1893 (basis of record)
Clathria (Axosuberites) Topsent, 1893 (basis of record)
Clathria (Axosuberites) fauroti (Topsent, 1893) (basis of record)
Clathria (Clathria) Schmidt, 1862 (basis of record)
Clathria (Clathria) frondiculata (Schmidt, 1864) (basis of record)
Clathria (Clathria) intermedia (Burton, 1930) accepted as Clathria (Paresperia) anchorata (Carter, 1874) (new combination reference)
Clathria (Clathria) irregularis (Burton, 1931) (basis of record)
Clathria (Dendrocia) Hallmann, 1920 (basis of record)
Clathria (Isociella) Hallmann, 1920 (basis of record)
Clathria (Microciona) Bowerbank, 1862 (basis of record)
Clathria (Microciona) stephensae Hooper, 1996 (basis of record)
Clathria (Thalysias) Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 (basis of record)
Clathria (Wilsonella) Carter, 1885 (basis of record)
Clathria (Wilsonella) guettardi (Topsent, 1933) (basis of record)
Clathria chartacea Whitelegge, 1907 accepted as Antho (Isopenectya) chartacea (Whitelegge, 1907) (basis of record)
Clathria fauroti (Topsent, 1893) represented as Clathria (Axosuberites) fauroti (Topsent, 1893) (basis of record)
Clathria morisca Schmidt, 1868 accepted as Antho (Antho) morisca (Schmidt, 1868) (basis of record)
Clathria stephensae Hooper, 1996 represented as Clathria (Microciona) stephensae Hooper, 1996 (basis of record)
Clathriella Burton, 1935 accepted as Antho (Isopenectya) Hallmann, 1920 (basis of record)
Clathriella primitiva Burton, 1935 accepted as Antho (Isopenectya) primitiva (Burton, 1935) (basis of record)
Clathriidae Lendenfeld, 1884 accepted as Microcionidae Carter, 1875 (basis of record)
Clathriopsamma Lendenfeld, 1888 accepted as Clathria (Wilsonella) Carter, 1885 (basis of record)
Colloclathria Dendy, 1922 accepted as Clathria (Thalysias) Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 (basis of record)
Damoseni Laubenfels, 1936 accepted as Clathria (Thalysias) Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 (basis of record)
Dendrocia Hallmann, 1920 accepted as Clathria (Dendrocia) Hallmann, 1920 (basis of record)
Dictyociona Topsent, 1913 accepted as Clathria (Clathria) Schmidt, 1862 (original description)
Dictyoclathria Topsent, 1920 accepted as Antho (Antho) Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Dirrhopalum Ridley in Ridley & Duncan, 1881 accepted as Antho (Acarnia) Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Echinochalina Thiele, 1903 (basis of record)
Echinochalina (Echinochalina) Thiele, 1903 (basis of record)
Echinochalina (Protophlitaspongia) Burton, 1934 (basis of record)
Echinochalina (Protophlitaspongia) oxeata (Burton, 1934) (basis of record)
Echinoclathria Carter, 1885 (basis of record)
Echinoclathria tenuis Carter, 1885 accepted as Echinoclathria leporina (Lamarck, 1814) (basis of record)
Echinonema Carter, 1875 accepted as Clathria (Thalysias) Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 (basis of record)
Echinoplocamia Burton, 1959 accepted as Antho (Plocamia) Schmidt, 1870 (basis of record)
Fisherispongia de Laubenfels, 1936 accepted as Clathria (Microciona) Bowerbank, 1862 (basis of record)
Halme Lendenfeld, 1886 accepted as Holopsamma Carter, 1885 (basis of record)
Heteroclathria Topsent, 1904 accepted as Antho (Plocamia) Schmidt, 1870 (additional source)
Holoplocamia Laubenfels, 1936 accepted as Antho (Acarnia) Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Holopsamma Carter, 1885 (basis of record)
Hymantho Burton, 1930 accepted as Clathria (Microciona) Bowerbank, 1862 (basis of record)
Isociella Hallmann, 1920 accepted as Clathria (Isociella) Hallmann, 1920 (basis of record)
Isociona Hallmann, 1920 accepted as Antho (Antho) Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Isopenectya Hallmann, 1920 accepted as Antho (Isopenectya) Hallmann, 1920 (basis of record)
Jia Laubenfels, 1930 accepted as Antho (Jia) Laubenfels, 1930 (additional source)
Labacea Laubenfels, 1936 accepted as Clathria (Clathria) Schmidt, 1862 (basis of record)
Leptoclathria Topsent, 1928 accepted as Clathria (Microciona) Bowerbank, 1862 (basis of record)
Ligrota Laubenfels, 1936 accepted as Clathria (Clathria) Schmidt, 1862 (basis of record)
Lissoplocamia Brøndsted, 1924 accepted as Antho (Acarnia) Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Litaspongia de Laubenfels, 1954 accepted as Clathria (Clathria) Schmidt, 1862 (basis of record)
Marleyia Burton, 1931 accepted as Clathria (Clathria) Schmidt, 1862 (basis of record)
Microciona Bowerbank, 1862 accepted as Clathria (Microciona) Bowerbank, 1862 (basis of record)
Microciona fascispiculifera Carter, 1880 accepted as Sigmeurypon fascispiculiferum (Carter, 1880) (basis of record)
Microcionidae Carter, 1875 (basis of record)
Microcioninae Carter, 1875 (basis of record)
Ophistospongia Gray, 1867 accepted as Clathria (Microciona) Bowerbank, 1862 (basis of record)
Ophlitaspongia Bowerbank, 1866 (additional source)
Ophlitaspongia papilla Bowerbank, 1866 (additional source)
Ophlitaspongiidae Laubenfels, 1936 accepted as Ophlitaspongiinae Laubenfels, 1936 (basis of record)
Ophlitaspongiinae Laubenfels, 1936 (status source)
Pandaros Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 (basis of record)
Pandaros acanthifolium Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 (basis of record)
Paradoryx Hallmann, 1920 accepted as Clathria (Dendrocia) Hallmann, 1920 (basis of record)
Paratenaciella Vacelet & Vasseur, 1971 accepted as Clathria (Microciona) Bowerbank, 1862 (basis of record)
Paresperia Burton, 1930 accepted as Clathria (Paresperia) Burton, 1930 (basis of record)
Phoriospongia guettardi Topsent, 1933 accepted as Clathria (Wilsonella) guettardi (Topsent, 1933) (basis of record)
Pitalia Gray, 1867 accepted as Clathria (Clathria) Schmidt, 1862 (basis of record)
Pitalia frondiculata (Schmidt, 1864) accepted as Clathria (Clathria) frondiculata (Schmidt, 1864) (basis of record)
 Diagnosis

Microcioninae with auxiliary styles in one or two categories forming various ectosomal structures ranging from ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Clathria with two categories of auxiliary styles forming a specialized ectosomal skeleton, the smaller usually ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Microcionina with terminally spined ectosomal styles, rarely modified to quasidiactinal or diactinal forms; three ... [details]