WoRMS taxon details

Polyophthalmus Quatrefages, 1850

129415  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:129415)

accepted
Genus
Nais picta Dujardin, 1839 accepted as Polyophthalmus pictus (Dujardin, 1839) (type by subsequent designation)
Aloysina Claparède, 1864 · unaccepted (subjective synonym)
Armandiella McIntosh, 1915 · unaccepted (subjective synonym, unreplaced...)  
subjective synonym, unreplaced junior homonym
Species Polyophthalmus australis Grube, 1869
Species Polyophthalmus ceylonensis Kükenthal, 1887
Species Polyophthalmus collaris Michaelsen, 1892
Species Polyophthalmus longisetosus Michaelsen, 1892
Species Polyophthalmus mauliola Magalhães, Rizzo & Bailey-Brock, 2019
Species Polyophthalmus pictus (Dujardin, 1839)
Species Polyophthalmus qingdaoensis Purschke, Ding & Müller, 1995
Species Polyophthalmus striatus Kükenthal, 1887
Species Polyophthalmus translucens Hartman, 1960
Species Polyophthalmus zhadanae Parapar, Al-Kandari, Candás & Moreira, 2021

Species Polyophthalmus agilis Quatrefages, 1850 accepted as Polyophthalmus pictus (Dujardin, 1839) (subjective synonym)
Species Polyophthalmus dubius Quatrefages, 1850 accepted as Polyophthalmus pictus (Dujardin, 1839) (subjective synonym)
Species Polyophthalmus ehrenbergi Quatrefages, 1850 accepted as Polyophthalmus pictus (Dujardin, 1839) (subjective synonym)
Species Polyophthalmus floridanus Augener, 1922 accepted as Polyophthalmus pictus (Dujardin, 1839) (subjective synonym)
Species Polyophthalmus incertus Treadwell, 1936 accepted as Polyophthalmus pictus (Dujardin, 1839) (subjective synonym)
Species Polyophthalmus pallidus Claparède, 1869 accepted as Polyophthalmus pictus (Dujardin, 1839) (subjective synonym)
Species Polyophthalmus papillatus Treadwell, 1943 accepted as Polyophthalmus pictus (Dujardin, 1839) (subjective synonym)
Species Polyophthalmus picta [auct. misspelling] accepted as Polyophthalmus pictus (Dujardin, 1839) (lapsus)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
recent only
Quatrefages, Armand de. (1850). Études sur les types inferieurs de l'embranchement des annelés. Mémoire sur la famille des Polyophthalmiens (<i>Polyophthalmea</i> Nob.). <em>Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris.</em> Série 3, 13: 5-24, plate 2 figs. 1-15., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/13434531
page(s): 9; note: describes 3 new species and additionally includes Nais picta [details]   
Note Quatrefages included in his new genus three...  
From editor or global species database
Type species Quatrefages included in his new genus three new species (P. ehrenbergi, P. agilis, and P. dubius) and also recombined Nais picta as Polyophthalmus pictus, without naming a type species (as was normal practice for the time). Subsequent authors treat Nais picta as the type, but in any case Hartman (1959 catalogue) assigned the other names to N. picta as synonyms. [details]
Etymology Not stated, but clearly named for the presence of the lateral segmental eyes which are mentioned more than once. In Greek...  
Etymology Not stated, but clearly named for the presence of the lateral segmental eyes which are mentioned more than once. In Greek Poly = many, ophthalmos = eyes. [details]
Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2022). World Polychaeta Database. Polyophthalmus Quatrefages, 1850. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=129415 on 2022-11-29
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2008-03-26 11:36:43Z
changed
2016-02-04 20:58:27Z
changed
2021-03-15 07:31:02Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description Quatrefages, Armand de. (1850). Études sur les types inferieurs de l'embranchement des annelés. Mémoire sur la famille des Polyophthalmiens (<i>Polyophthalmea</i> Nob.). <em>Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris.</em> Série 3, 13: 5-24, plate 2 figs. 1-15., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/13434531
page(s): 9; note: describes 3 new species and additionally includes Nais picta [details]   

original description  (of Armandiella McIntosh, 1915) McIntosh, William Carmichel. (1915). Polychaeta, Opheliidae to Ammocharidae. <em>A Monograph of the British Marine Annelids.</em> The Ray Society, London, 3 (1): i-viii, 1-368 (text)., available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/38532650
page(s): 19, plate XCV, figure 5; note: created for Armandia robertianae [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Aloysina Claparède, 1864) Claparède, Édouard. (1864). Glanures zootomiques parmi les annélides de Port-Vendres (Pyrénées Orientales). <em>Mémoires de la Société de Physique et d'Histoire Naturelle de Genève.</em> 17(2): 463-600, plates I-VIII., available online at https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.1972
page(s): 468; note: Aloysina is a genus name tentatively proposed by Claparède in a footnote to his observations on Polyophthalmus pictus [details]   

additional source Fauchald, K. (1977). The polychaete worms, definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. <em>Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County: Los Angeles, CA (USA), Science Series.</em> 28:1-188., available online at http://www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/123110.pdf [details]   

additional source Bellan, G. (2001). Polychaeta, <i>in</i>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. <em>Collection Patrimoines Naturels.</em> 50: 214-231. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Day, J. H. (1967). [Sedentaria] A monograph on the Polychaeta of Southern Africa. Part 2. Sedentaria. British Museum (Natural History), London. pp. 459–842., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/8596  [details]   

identification resource Parapar, Julio, Al-Kandari, Manal, Candás, María, Moreira, Juan. (2021). A new species of Polyophthalmus (Annelida, Opheliidae) from the Arabian Gulf, with an insight on internal anatomy and diversity of the genus. <em>Zootaxa.</em> 5052(4): 501-528., available online at https://www.mapress.com/zt/article/view/zootaxa.5052.4.3
page(s): 522; note: Key to species of Polyophthalmus Quatrefages, 1850 of Indian and Pacific Oceans [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
From editor or global species database
Diagnosis Body elongated, not divided into distinct regions; ventral groove and two lateral grooves present. Segments indistinctly annulated. Prostomium broadly rounded; low palpode-like papilla absent/present; subdermal eyespots; a pair of large, eversible nuchal organs divided into a ventral and a dorsal region. Branchiae entirely absent. Segmental lateral eyes present between parapodia. Parapodial lobes reduced, notopodial and neuropodial capillaries emerging from body wall. Interramal ciliated sensory papilla and a dorsal and ventral cirrus maybe present in parapodia. Noto- and neuropodial lappets absent. Pygidium with short anal funnel bearing marginal papillae and sometimes a pair of basal papillae. [from Parapar et al 2021, modified from Magalhães et al. (2019] [details]

Etymology Not stated, but clearly named for the presence of the lateral segmental eyes which are mentioned more than once. In Greek Poly = many, ophthalmos = eyes. [details]

Synonymy The Hartman catalogue (1959:434) listed every original Polyophthalmus species name except P. striatus Kukenthal, 1887 as a synonym of Polyophthalmus pictus. These were agilis, australis, ceylonensis, collaris, dubius, ehrenbergi, floridanus, incertus, longisetosus, pallidus, papillatus, and pictus pontica. The basis on which she gave them this status is unknown. Parapar et al (October 2021: 523) stated that "According to Read & Fauchald (2021) [this WoRMS database] only four [Polyophthalmus] species are considered valid". These were P. pictus, plus the modern species P. translucens, P. quingdaoensis and P. mauliola.


Parapar et al (October 2021) summarized the past literature as follows: "Gravier (1905) suggested P. ehrenbergi, P. dubius, P. pallidus and “probably P. ceylonensis” as synonyms of P. pictus; this opinion was followed by Augener (1914). Fauvel (1919, 1925, 1927, 1933a, b) supported the idea of a worldwide distribution for P. pictus and proposed P. ceylonensis and P. collaris as synonyms of the former (Fauvel 1932). Later, Hartman (1959) raised to 13 [actually 12] the number of synonyms of P. pictus. However, Purschke et al. (1995) suggested that only the European species are synonyms of P. pictus; Magalhães et al. (2019) also stated the need to “revise the P. pictus species complex”, [an] opinion also followed by Blake & Maciolek (2020) and Parapar et al. (February 2021)."


An overview of the family by Blake & Maciolek (2020, Handbook of Zoology) listed the following Polyophthalmus as likely valid, although the background evidence for this was not published.

Polyophthalmus australis Grube, 1869 Cape York, Australia

Polyophthalmus ceylonensis Kükenthal, 1887 Sri Lanka

Polyophthalmus collaris Michaelsen, 1892 Sri Lanka

Polyophthalmus longisetosus Michaelsen, 1892 Sri Lanka

Polyophthalmus mauliola Magalhães, Rizzo and Bailey-Brock, 2019 Mamala Bay, Hawaii

Polyophthalmus pictus (Dujardin, 1839) France

Polyophthalmus qingdaoensis Purschke, Ding and Müller, 1995 Qingdao, Yellow Sea

Polyophthalmus striatus Kükenthal, 1887 Hong Kong

Polyophthalmus translucens Hartman, 1960 Southern California


Parapar et al (October 2021) included in their identification key, as probably valid, P. pictus plus P. qingdaoensis, P. striatus, P. mauliola, P. ceylonensis, P. collaris, P. longisetous, P. australis, and their new species P. zhadanae, whereas the following were considered to be still P. pictus synonyms: P. pictus pontica, P. agilis, P. dubius, P. robertianae, P. incertus, P. floridanus, P. ehrenbergi, P. pallidus, and P. papillatus. P. translucens Hartman 1960 [q.v,] is currently suggested to be a subjective synonym (fide Sene Silva, 2007, unpublished thesis) of Ophelina abranchiata Støp-Bowitz, 1948, although note the respective type localities are geographically separated (different oceans), and Sene Silva gave no evidence to support his placement. [details]


Type species Quatrefages included in his new genus three new species (P. ehrenbergi, P. agilis, and P. dubius) and also recombined Nais picta as Polyophthalmus pictus, without naming a type species (as was normal practice for the time). Subsequent authors treat Nais picta as the type, but in any case Hartman (1959 catalogue) assigned the other names to N. picta as synonyms. [details]