AfReMaS banner
About | Search taxa | Taxon tree | Search literature | Checklist | Stats | Log in

AfReMaS taxon details

Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816

205785  (



  • Alphabetically
  • By status

Children Display

marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
Lamouroux, J. V. F. (1816). Histoire des polypiers coralligènes flexibles, vulgairement nommés zoophytes. <em>F. Poisson, Caen.</em> i-lxxxiv, 1-558, pls. I-XIX., available online at
page(s): 359-361 [details]  OpenAccess publication 
Reimer, J.D.; Sinniger, F. (2024). World List of Zoantharia. Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816. Accessed through: Odido, M.; Appeltans, W.; BelHassen, M.; Mussai, P.; Nsiangango, S.E.; Vandepitte, L.; Wambiji, N.; Zamouri, N. Jiddou, A.M. (Eds) (2024) African Register of Marine Species at: on 2024-04-13
Odido, M.; Appeltans, W.; BelHassen, M.; Mussai, P.; Nsiangango, S.E.; Vandepitte, L.; Wambiji, N.; Zamouri, N. Jiddou, A.M. (Eds) (2024). African Register of Marine Species. Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816. Accessed at: on 2024-04-13
2004-06-06 22:00:00Z
2010-04-03 03:54:16Z
2011-10-04 13:36:00Z
2019-09-13 14:37:42Z

original description Lamouroux, J. V. F. (1816). Histoire des polypiers coralligènes flexibles, vulgairement nommés zoophytes. <em>F. Poisson, Caen.</em> i-lxxxiv, 1-558, pls. I-XIX., available online at
page(s): 359-361 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Hyman, L.H., 1940. The Invertebrates: Protozoa through Ctenophora. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York and London : i-xii, 1-726.
page(s): 625 [details]   

additional source Mariscal, R.N., 1974. Nematocysts. In: L. Muscatine & H.M. Lenhoff, eds, Coelenterate Biology. Reviews and new perspectives : 129-178.
page(s): 155 [details]   

additional source Weill, R., 1934. Contribution à l'étude des Cnidaires et de leurs nématocystes. II. Valeur taxonomique du cnidôme. Trav. Stn zool. Wimereux 11 : 349-701.
page(s): 357, 620-621, 623 [details]   

additional source Gravely, F.H., 1941. Shells and other animal remains found on the Madras beach. I. Groups other than snails, etc. (Mollusca Gastropoda). Bull. Madras Govt Mus., n. ser., nat. Hist. 5 1: 1-112.
page(s): 16 [details]   

additional source Muscatine, L., 1974. Endosymbiosis of cnidarians and algae. In: L. Muscatine & H.M. Lenhoff, eds, Coelenterate Biology. Reviews and new perspectives : 359-395.
page(s): 377 [details]   

additional source Reed, S.A., 1971. Some common Coelenterates in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. In: H.M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine & L.V. Davis, eds, Experimental Coelenterate Biology : 37-51.
page(s): 47, 49 [details]   

additional source Reimer, A.A., 1971. Observations on the relationships between several species of tropical zoanthids (Zoanthidea, Coelenterata) and their zooxanthellae. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 7 : 207-214.
page(s): 207, 208-211, 212, 213 [details]   

additional source Trench, R.K. & R.J. Blank. (1987). Symbiodinium microadriaticum Freudenthal, S. goreauii sp. nov., S. kawagutii sp. nov. and S. pilosum sp. nov.: gymnodinioid dinoflagellate symbionts of marine invertebrates. <em>J. Phycol.</em> 23: 469-481.
page(s): 477 [details]   

additional source Gosse, P.H., 1860. Actinologia Britannica. A history of the British sea-anemones and corals. London: Van Voorst : pp. i-xl, 1-362.
page(s): 295, 296 [details]   

additional source Daly, M.M., Fautin D.G., Cappola V.A., 2003. Systematics of the Hexacorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 139 3: 419-437.
page(s): 424-425, 427-428 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Ryland, J.S., Brasseur M.M., Lancaster J.E., 2004. Use of cnidae in taxonomy: implications from a study of Acrozoanthus australiae (Hexacorallia, Zoanthidea). Journal of Natural History 38 : 1193-1223.
page(s): 1195 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Brattström, H. (1980). Rocky-shore zonation in the Santa Marta area, Colombia. <em>Sarsia.</em> 65: 163-226.
page(s): 172, 175, 183, 184, 185, 186, 198, 204, 208, 209, 210, 215 [details]   

additional source Cubit, John and Williams, Suelynn 1983. The invertebrates of Galeta Reef (Caribbean Panama): a species list and bibliography. Atoll Research Bulletin 269: 1-45.
page(s): 9 [details]   

additional source Brattström, Hans 1985. Rocky-shore zonation on the Atlantic coast of Panama. Sarsia 70: 179-216.
page(s): 181, 182, 189, 194, 195, 197, 201, 209, 210 [details]   

additional source Stephenson, T. A., Stephenson, Anne, Tandy, G. and Spender, N. 1931. The structure and ecology of Low Isles and other reefs. Great Barrier Reef Expedition Scientific Reports 3(2): 17-112.
page(s): 65, 67, 72, 84, 86, 88, 106 [details]   

additional source Stephenson, William, Endean, R. and Bennett, Isobel 1958. An ecological survey of the marine fauna of Low Isles, Queensland. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 9(2): 261-318.
page(s): 267, 284, 286, 288, 293, 300, 311 [details]   

additional source Robertson, A.L., J. Lancaster, L.R. Belyea & A.G. Hildrew. (1997). Hydraulic habitat and the assemblage structure of stream benthic microcrustacea. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16(3):562-575.
page(s): 246-248 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Reimer JD, Sinniger F, Fujiwara Y, Hirano S, Maruyama T. 2007. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Abyssoanthus nankaiensis, a new family, new genus and new species of deep-sea zoanthid (Anthozoa:Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) from a north-west Pacific methane cold seep
page(s): 257, 260, 261 [details]   

additional source Burnett WJ, Benzie JAH, Beardmore JA, Ryland JS. 1997. Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) from the Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait, Australia: systematics, evolution and a key to species. Coral Reefs 16: 55-68.
page(s): 55-67 [details]   

additional source Grygier, M.J. (1985). Lauridae: taxonomy and morphology of ascothoracid crustacean parasites of zoanthids. <em>Bulletin of Marine Science.</em> 36(2): 278-303.
page(s): 278, 288 [details]   

additional source Grygier, M.J. (1991). Additions to the ascothoracidan fauna of Australia and South-east Asia (Crustacea, Maxillopoda): Synagogidae (part), Lauridae and Petrarcidae. <em>Records of the Australian Museum.</em> 43: 1-46.
page(s): 30 [details]   

additional source Grygier, M.J. (1996). A world list of coral reef-associated Ascothoracida (Crustacea), with remarks on Lauridae Petrarcidae, and Dendrogastridae from Okinawa, Japan. <em>Galaxea.</em> 13: 15-33.
page(s): 15, 16, 17, 21 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Itô, T., M.J. Grygier & J. Honshu, J. (1990). Description and complete larval development of a new species of Baccalaureus (Crustacea: Ascothoracida) parasitic in a zoanthid from Tanabe. <em>Zoological Science.</em> 7(3), 485-515.
page(s): 498 [details]   

additional source Van Beneden, E. (1897). Les Anthozoaires de la Plankton-Expedition = Die Anthozoen der Plankton-Expedition. Ergebnisse der in dem Atlantischen Ocean von Mitte Juli bis Anfang November 1889 ausgeführten Plankton-Expedition der Humboldt-Stiftung, II. K.e.. Lipsius & Tischer: Kiel. 222 + XVIII plates pp. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 161, 163 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1937). Ceriantharia and Zoantharia. <em>Scientific Reports of the Great Barrier Reef Expedition 1928-29.</em> 5(5): 177-207.
page(s): 183, 194 [details]   

additional source Amaral, F. D., Hudson, M. M., Steiner, A. Q., & Ramos, C. A. C. 2007. Corals and calcified hydroids of the Manuel Luiz Marine State Park (State of Maranhao, northeast Brazil). Biota Neotropica 7: 73-81.
page(s): 7 [details]   

additional source Cairns, S.D., L. Gershwin, F.J. Brook, P. Pugh, E.W. Dawson, O.V.; Ocaña, W. Vervoort, G. Williams, J.E. Watson, D.M. Opresko, P. Schuchert, P.M. Hine, D.P. Gordon, H.I. Campbell, A.J. Wright, J.A.Sánchez & D.G. Fautin. (2009). Phylum Cnidaria: corals, medusae, hydroids, myxozoans. <em>in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia.</em> pp. 59-101., available online at [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Carlgren, O. (1923). Ceriantharia und Zoantharia der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. <em>Deutsche Tiefsee-Expedition 1898-1899.</em> 19(7): 243-337.
page(s): 256-257 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1900). Ostafrikanische Actinien. Gesammelt von Herrn Dr. F. Stuhlmann 1888 und 1889. <em>Mittheilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum.</em> 17: 21-144.
page(s): 129-130 [details]   

additional source Sinniger, F.; Reimer, J.D.; Pawlowski, J. (2010). The Parazoanthidae (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) DNA taxonomy: description of two new genera. Marine Biodiversity, 40(1), 57-70.
page(s): 59, 60, 63, 65 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1911). Aktinien der Aru-Inseln. <em>Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft.</em> 33: 297-304., available online at
page(s): 300 [details]   

additional source Holdsworth, E.W.H. (1858). On Zoanthus couchii, Johnston. <i>Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London</i>. Part XXVI:557-560.
page(s): 558 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1972). Etude systématique de quelques zoanthaires tempérés et tropicaux. <em>Tethys.</em> Supplement 3, pp. 69-156.
page(s): 69, 72, 75, 76, 78, 80, 82, 109, 142, 145 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Sinniger, F.; Montoya-Burgos, J. I.; Chevaldonné, P.; Pawlowski, J. (2005). Phylogeny of the order Zoantharia (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) based on the mitochondrial ribosomal genes. <em>Marine Biology.</em> 147(5): 1121-1128., available online at
page(s): 1124, 1125, 1126 [details]   

additional source Verrill AE. (1869). Synopsis of the polyps and corals of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under Commodore C. Ringgold and Capt. John Rodgers, U.S.N., from 1853 to 1856. Collected by Dr. Wm. Stimpson, Naturalist to the Expedition. <em>Communications of the Essex Institute, Salem.</em> 6 (1): 51-104, pls. 1-2., available online at
page(s): 102 [68] [details]   

additional source Klunzinger, C. B. (1877). Die Korallthiere des Rothen Meeres. 1: Die Alcyonarien und Malacodermen. <em>Gutmann'schen Buchhandlung. Berlin.</em> pp. 98., available online at
page(s): 64 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Walsh, G. E.; Bowers, R. L. (1971). A review of Hawaiian zoanthids with descriptions of three new species. <em>Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.</em> 50(2): 161-180., available online at
page(s): 164 [details]   

additional source Saville-Kent, W. (1897). The naturalist in Australia. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. i-xv, 1-302, pls. 1-50, chromo plates 1-9.
page(s): 224 [details]   

additional source Hertwig, R. (1888). Report on the Actiniaria dredged by HMS 'Challenger' during the years 1873-1876. Supplement. <em>Reports on the scientific results of the voyage of HMS Challenger during the years 1873-76.</em> XXVI, pt. LXXIII: 4–56. London, Edinburgh & Dublin., available online at
page(s): 35, 46, 48, 49 [details]   

additional source Milne Edwards H,. (1857). Histoire naturelle des coralliaires, ou polypes proprement dits. 1. <em>Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris.</em> 326 pp., available online at
page(s): 299, 301 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Reimer, J. D.; Ono, S.; Takishita, K.; Tsukahara, J.; Maruyama, T. (2006). Molecular Evidence Suggesting Species in the Zoanthid Genera Palythoa and Protopalythoa (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) Are Congeneric. <em>Zoological Science.</em> 23(1): 87-94., available online at
page(s): 88, 90, 92 [details]   

additional source Abel, E.F. (1959). Zur Kenntnis der marinen Hohlenfauna unter besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Anthozoen. <em>Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli.</em> 30 (Suppl. 1): 1-94.
page(s): 22 [details]   

additional source Haddon A. C.; Duerden J. E. (1896). On some Actiniaria from Australia and other districts. <em>Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society.</em> 6, II, 6, 139-172.
page(s): 148 [details]   

additional source McMurrich J.P. (1898). Report on the Actiniaria collected by the Bahama Expedition of the State University of Iowa, 1893. <em>Bulletin from the laboratories of natural history of the State University of Iowa.</em> v. 4, no. 3, p. 225-249.
page(s): 243, 244 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S. et al. (2000). Semper’s (zoanthid) larvae: pelagic life, parentage and other problems. Hydrobiologia, 440: 191-198
page(s): 2, 5 [details]   

additional source Kaplan, E. H. (1982). A Field Guide to Coral Reefs: Caribbean and Florida. <em>Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.</em> pp 289.
page(s): 33, 34, 115 [details]   

additional source Fossa, S. A.; Nilsen, A. J. (1998). The Modern Coral Reef Aquarium. <em>Birgit Schmettkamp Verlag, Bornheim, Germany.</em> volume 2, pp 479.
page(s): 269, 271, 273, 274, 275, 279 [details]   

additional source Manjarrés, G. (1978). Nuevos encuentros de actinias (Hexacorallia) en la region de Santa Marta, Colombia. Anales de Instituto Investigacion Marina (Punta Betín), 10, 127-132
page(s): 130 [details]   

additional source Menon, K. R. (1927). Subclass Zoantharia (except Scleractiniae). Bulletin of Madras Government Museum (Natural History Section), 1(1): 31-40
page(s): 32 [details]   

additional source Sebens, K. P. (1998). Anthozoa: Actiniaria, Zoanthidea, Corallimorpharia, and Ceriantharia. National Marine Fisheries Service. Seattle., volume 141, pp. 1-67
page(s): 5 [details]   

additional source Verrill, A. E. (1868-1870). Review of the corals and polyps of the west coast of America. <em>Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences.</em> 1, 6, 377-558.
page(s): 495 [details]   

additional source Verrill, A. E. (1868). Synopsis of the polyps and corals of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under Commodore C. Ringgold and Capt. John Rodgers, U.S.N., from 1853 to 1856. Collected by Dr. Wm. Stimpson, Naturalist to the Expedition. Part IV. Actiniaria [First part]. Communications of the Essex Institute, 5(3): 315-330 [reprint 1-16]
page(s): 316-317 [2-3] [details]   

additional source Endean, R. (1982). Australia's Great Barrier Reef. University of Queensland Press. St Lucia, London, New York., edition 1st, pp. 348.
page(s): 79, 229, illustration 62. [details]   

additional source Kimura, S.; Hashimoto, Y. (1973). Purification of the toxin in a zoanthid Palythoa tuberculosa. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 20 (Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Cnidaria), 712-718
page(s): 712, 716, 717 [details]   

additional source Reimer, A. A. (1972). Glutathione-proline activation of feeding behaviour in the zoanthid Palythoa psammophilia Walsh & Bowers. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 10, 177-181
page(s): 180 [details]   

additional source Daumas, R.; Thomassin, B. A. (1977). Protein fractions in coral and zoantharian mucus: Possible evolution in coral reef environments. Proceedings of the Third International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 517-523
page(s): 517-522 [details]   

additional source Macintyre, I. G.; Raymond, B.; Stuckenrath, R. (1983). Recent history of a fringing reef, Bahia Salina del Sur, Vieques Island, Puerto Rico. Atoll Research Bulletin, 268, 1-9
page(s): 2 [details]   

additional source Ducklow, H. W.; Mitchell, R. (1979). Bacterial populations and adaptations in the mucus layers on living corals. Limnology and Oceanography, 24, 4, 715-725
page(s): 715, 716 [details]   

additional source Gore, M. A. (1984). Factors affecting the feeding behaviour of a coral reef fish, Chaetodon capistratus. Bulletin of Marine Science, 35(2): 211-220
page(s): 214 [details]   

additional source Jaap, W. C. (1979). Observations on zooxanthellae expulsion at Middle Sambo Reef, Florida Keys. Bulletin of Marine Science, 29(3): 414-422
page(s): 414 [details]   

additional source Adjeroud, M. M.; Andréfouët, S.; Payri, C.; Orempüller, J. (2000). Physical factors of differentiation in macrobenthic communities between atoll lagoons in the Central Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 196, 25-38
page(s): 30 [details]   

additional source Hertwig, R. (1882). Die Actinien der Challenger Expedition. Gustav Fischer. Jena., pp. 119.
page(s): 99 [details]   

additional source Hertwig, R. (1882). Report on the Actiniaria dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76 (Zoology), 6(1): 1-136
page(s): 111 [details]   

additional source McMurrich, J. P. (1893). Report on the Actiniæ collected by the United States Fish Commission Steamer Albatross during the winter of 1887-1888. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 16(930): 119-216
page(s): 124 [details]   

additional source McMurrich, J. P. (1889). The Actiniaria of the Bahama Islands, W.I. Journal of Morphology, 3(1): 1-80
page(s): 62 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1909). Die Aktinien der ostafrikanischen Inseln. Alfred Voeltzkow (eds.)., volume 2, pp. 399-418
page(s): 408 [details]   

additional source Scheltema, R. S. (1989). The eastern Pacific as a barrier to the dispersal of planktonic larvae of benthic invertebrates. Proceedings of the Twenty-first European Marine Biology Symposium, 435-445
page(s): 441 [details]   

additional source Schmidt, H. (1972). Die Nesselkapseln der Anthozoen und ihre Bedeutung fur die phylogenetische Systematik. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 23, 422-458
page(s): 443 [details]   

additional source Karlson, R. H. (1988). Size-dependent growth in two zoanthid species: a contrast in clonal strategies. Ecology, 69(4): 1219-1232
page(s): 1222 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1987). Ordre des Zoanthaires. Masson. Paris., pp. 783-810
page(s): 788, 791, 793, 794, 798, 796, 797, 798, 799, 802, 805, 806 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1972). Contribution à l'étude écologique de quelques zoanthaires tempérés et tropicaux. Marine Biology, 13, 127-136
page(s): 130 [details]   

additional source Menon, K. R. (1926). On the adults of Zoanthella and Zoanthina. Records of the Indian Museum (A Journal of Indian Zoology), 28, 61-64
page(s): 62 63 [details]   

additional source Moore, R. E.; Scheuer, P. J. (1971). Palytoxin: a new marine toxin from a coelenterate. Science, 172, 495-497
page(s): 495-497 [details]   

additional source Muirhead, A. M.; Ryland, J. S. (1984). Order Zoanthidea. Australian Coral Reef Society. Brisbane., edition 2nd, pp. 29-33
page(s): 29, 30 [details]   

additional source Muirhead, A. M.; Ryland, J. S. (1985). A review of the genus Isaurus Gray, 1828 (Zoanthidea), including new records from Fiji. Journal of Natural History, 19, 323-335
page(s): 325, 329 [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Mueller, I. (1957). Zoantharien des zoologischen museums in Genua. Annali del Museu Civico di Storia Naturali 'Giacomo Doria', 69, 19-30
page(s): 27, 29 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1934). Anthozoa (Teil I. Allgemeines, Ceriantharia, Antipatharia, Zoantharia, Madreporaria). Tierwelt der Nord- und Ostee, 26, 39-53
page(s): 48, 52 [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Mueller, I. (1956). Zoanthaires de la Mer Rouge. Recueillis par le vaisseau d'exploration "Calypso" en 1952. Annales de l'Institute Oceanographique, 32, 3-17
page(s): 10 [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Lochter, H. (1935). Epizoanthus vatovai, eine neue Carcinoecien bildende Krustenanemone der Adria. Note dell'Instituto Italo-Germanico di biologia marina di Rovigno d'Istria, 1, 3-16
page(s): 4 [details]   

additional source Scheltema, R. S. (1971). The dispersal of the larvae of shoal-water benthic invertebrate species over long distances by ocean currents. Proceedings of the Fourth European Marine Biology Symposium, 7-28
page(s): 13, 19 [details]   

additional source Scheltema, R. S. (1968). Dispersal of larvae by equatorial ocean currents and its importance to the zoogeography of shoal-water tropical species. Nature (London), 217(5134): 1159-1162
page(s): 5 [details]   

additional source Tischbierek, H. (1930). Zoanthiden auf Wurmröhren. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 91, 91-95
page(s): 93 [details]   

additional source Schultze, M. (1867). On Hyalonema. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 19, 3, 153-160
page(s): 155, 159 [details]   

additional source Seifert, R. (1928). Die Nesselkapseln der Zoantharien und ihre differentialdiagnostische Bedeutung. Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere, 55, 419-500
page(s): 419, 421, 424, 426, 427, 431, 432, 440, 457, 458, 459-486, 487, 488, 492, 493, 495, 499 [details]   

additional source Walsh, G. E. (1967). An Annotated Bibliography of the Families Zoanthidae, Epizoanthidae, and Parazoanthidae (Coelenterata, Zoantharia). Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology. Honolulu., pp. 77.
page(s): 2, 4-21 [details]   

additional source Gleibs, S.; Mebs, D.; Werding, B. (1995). Studies on the origin and distribution of palytoxin in a Caribbean coral reef. Toxicon, 33(11): 1531-1537
page(s): 1531-1534, 1536 [details]   

additional source Nielsen, C. (1984). Notes on a Zoanthina-larva (Cnidaria) from Phuket, Thailand. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening (Copenhagen), 145, 53-60
page(s): 53 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S. (1997). Reproduction in Zoanthidea (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 31(1-3): 177-188
page(s): 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 184 [details]   

additional source Roule, L. (1900). Description d'une nouvelle espèce Méditerranéenne de zoanthidé, commensale des pagures (Palythoa-Gemmaria-Paguricola). Bulletin de la Societé Zoologique de France, 25, 120-125
page(s): 120, 122, 123, 125 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S. (1997). Budding in Acrozoanthus Saville-Kent, 1893 (Anthozoa: Zoanthidea). Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Coelenterate Biology, 423-428
page(s): 427 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S. (1981). Reefs of southwest Viti Levu and their tourism potential. Proceedings of the Fourth International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 293-298
page(s): 296 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S. (1981). Introduction to the coral reefs of Fiji. South Pacific Journal of Natural Science, 2, 44-51
page(s): 48 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S.; Muirhead, A. M. (1983). Fringing reefs in southwest Viti Levu, with special reference to Zoanthidea. Bulletin of Marine Science, 33(3): 783-784
page(s): 783 [details]   

additional source Haddon, A. C. (1886). First report on the marine fauna of the south-west of Ireland. Actinozoa. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 4, 2, 5, 615-618
page(s): 601, 604, 617 [details]   

additional source Allen, G. R.; Steene, R. (1994). Indo-Pacific Coral Reef Field Guide. Tropical Reef Research. Singapore., edition 1st, pp. 378.
page(s): 63 [details]   

additional source Ates, R. M. L. (1991). Fishes eating corals. Freshwater and Marine Aquarist, 15, 5, 179-181
page(s): 185 [details]   

additional source Ates, R. M. L. (1995). Colonial anemones - Zoanthiniaria. A review for the seriously interested marine aquarist. Aquarium Frontiers, Spring 1995, 10-13
page(s): 10-13 [details]   

additional source Duerden, J. E. (1896). Zoanthidæ at Port Henderson. Journal of the Institute of Jamaica, 2(3): 285-287
page(s): 286 [details]   

additional source Erdmann, A. (1885). Ueber einige neue Zoantheen. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft, 19, 430-488
page(s): 469-472 [details]   

additional source Fosså, S. A.; Nilsen, A. J. (1995). Korallenriff-Aquarium, 4. Nesseltiere in Korallenriff und für das Korallenriff-Aquarium. Birgit Schmettkamp Verlag. Bornheim, Germany., edition 1st, volume 4, pp. 447.
page(s): 255, 257, 260, 261, 265, 66 [details]   

additional source Frische, J. (1991). Flächenwüchsige Aquarienpfleglinge. Das Aquarium, 261, 33-37
page(s): 31, 32 [details]   

additional source Duerden, J. E. (1898). On the relations of certain Stichodactylinae to the Madreporaria. Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Zoology), 26, 635-653
page(s): 639 [details]   

additional source Duerden, J. E. (1898). The geographical distribution of the Actiniaria of Jamaica. Natural Science, 12(72): 100-105
page(s): 103 [details]   

additional source Maragos, J. E.; Molina, M.; Kenyon, J. (2004). Palmyra Atoll coral data compiled from Townsend Cromwell 2000-2002, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2000-2001, and Sette 2004 surveys [Table 8]. UNPUBLISHED, UNPUBLISHED [details]   

additional source Maragos, J. E.; Schmerfeld, J. (2004). Coral survey from Howland Island National Wildlife Refuge, 1998-2004 [Table 3]. UNPUBLISHED, Unpublished
page(s): 1 [details]   

additional source Maragos, J. E.; VanRavenswaay, D.; Gulko, D. (2004). French Frigate Shoals coral data compiled from Townsend Cromwell 2000-2, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Rapture 2000 and 2002, and 2003 Sette surveys [Table 1]. UNPUBLISHED, Unpublished
page(s): 1 [details]   

additional source Castro, C. B.; Echeverría, C. A.; Pires, D. de Oliveira; Mascarenhas, B. J. de A.; Freitas, S. G. (1995). Distribuição de Cnidaria e echinodermata no infralitoral de costões rochosos de arraial do cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia (Rio de Janeiro), 55(3): 471-480
page(s): 471-472, 475-479 [details]   

additional source Echeverría, C. A.; Pires, D. de Oliveira; Medeiros, M. S.; Castro, C. B. (1997). Cnidarians of the Atol das Rocas, Brazil. Proceedings of the Eighth International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 443-446
page(s): 445 [details]   

additional source Castro, C. B.; Echeverría, C. A.; Pires, D. de Oliveira; Fonseca, C. G. (1999). Distribuição do bentos (Cnidaria e Echinodermata) em costões rochosos da Baía da Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. PPGE-UFRJ. Rio de Janeiro, Brasil., volume VII, pp. 179-193
page(s): 183-185 [details]   

additional source Morton, J. E. (1974). The coral reefs of the British Solomon Islands: a comparative study of their composition and ecology. Proceedings of the Second International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 31-53
page(s): 35, 55, 47, 48, 50 [details]   

additional source Larson, K. S.; Larson, R. J. (1982). On the ecology of Isaurus duchassaingi (Andres) (Cnidaria: Zoanthidea) from South Water Cay, Belize. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, 12, 475-488
page(s): 479, 484 [details]   

additional source Müller, G. (1883). Zur Morphologie der Scheidewände bei einigen Palythoa und Zoanthus. Marburg., pp. 44.
page(s): 17-33 [details]   

additional source Babcock, R. C.; Ryland, J. S. (1990). Larval development of a tropical zoanthid (Protopalythoa sp.). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 17, 3, 229-236
page(s): 236 [details]   

additional source Laborel, J. (1970). Les peuplements de madréporaires des côtes tropicales du Brésil. Annales de l'Université d'Abidjan, 2, E, (3): 7-261
page(s): 132, 133, 140, 144, 145, 194 [details]   

additional source Ono, S.; Reimer, J. D.; Tsukahara, J. (2005). Reproduction of Zoanthus sansibaricus in the infra-littoral zone at Taisho Lava Field, Sakurajima, Kagoshima, Japan. Zoological Science, 22, 247-255
page(s): 254 [details]   

additional source Hoffmann, K.; Hermanns-Clausen, M.; Buhl, C.; Büchler, M. W.; Schemmer, P.; Mebs, D.; Kauferstein, S. (2008). A case of palytoxin poisoning due to contact with zoanthid corals through a skin injury. Toxicon, 51, 1535-1537
page(s): 1535-1537 [details]   

additional source Hirose, M.; Obuchi, M.; Hirose, E.; Reimer, J. D. (2011). Timing of spawning and early development of Palythoa tuberculosa (Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) in Okinawa, Japan. Biological Bulletin, 220(23-31): 23-31
page(s): 29 [details]   

additional source Corrêa, D. D. (1964). Corallimorpharia e Actiniaria do Atlantico Oeste Tropical. Universidade de São Paulo (Dissertation). São Paulo., pp. 139.
page(s): 68 [details]   

additional source Amaral, F. D.; Ramos, C. A. C.; Leão, Z. M. A. N.; Kikuchi, R. K. P.; Lima, K. K. M.; Longo, L.; Cordeiro, R. T. S.; Lira, S. M. A.; Vasconcelos, S. L. (2009). Checklist and morphometry of benthic cnidarians from the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 50, 277-290
page(s): 283 [details]   

additional source Pires, D. de Oliveira; Castro, C. B.; Migotto, Á. E.; Marques, A. C. (1992). Cnidários bentônicos do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Brasil. Boletim do Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro), N.S., (354): 1-21
page(s): 11 [details]   

additional source Dunn, D. F. (1982). Cnidaria. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York and other cities., volume 1, pp. 669-706
page(s): 704 [details]   

additional source Henríquez H., Y. A.; Palacios C., M. E. (2008). Distribución de antozoo Stichodactyla helianthus en un arrecife franjeante de Isla Larga, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Estado Carabobo, Venezuela. FARAUTE Ciencias y Tecnología, 3(1): 5-16
page(s): 5, 13 [details]   

additional source Vine, P. (1986). Red Sea Invertebrates. Immel Publishing, London. 224 pp. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 51 [details]   

additional source Colin, P.L.; Arneson, C. (1995). Tropical Pacific Invertebrates. A fieldGuide to the Marine Invertebrates Occurring on Tropical Pacific Coral Reefs, Seagrass Beds and Mangroves. <em>Coral Reef Press: Irvine, USA.</em> 1-296.
page(s): 122-125 [details]   
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality