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Morrow, C.; Picton, B.; Erpenbeck, D.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Maggs, C.; Allcock, A. (2012). Congruence between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in Demospongiae: A new hypothesis for relationships within the G4 clade (Porifera: Demospongiae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 62(1): 174-190.
10.1016/j.ympev.2011.09.016 [view]
Morrow, C.; Picton, B.; Erpenbeck, D.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Maggs, C.; Allcock, A.
Congruence between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in Demospongiae: A new hypothesis for relationships within the G4 clade (Porifera: Demospongiae)
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
62(1): 174-190
on line october 2011
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
The current morphological classification of the Demospongiae G4 clade was tested using large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) sequences from 119 taxa. Fifty-three mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) barcoding sequences were also analysed to test whether the 28S phylogeny could be recovered using an independent gene. This is the largest and most comprehensive study of the Demospongiae G4 clade. The 28S and CO1 genetrees result in congruent clades but conflict with the current morphological classification. The results confirm the polyphyly of Halichondrida, Hadromerida, Dictyonellidae, Axinellidae and Poecilosclerida and show that several of the characters used in morphological classifications are homoplasious. Robust clades are clearly shown and a new hypothesis for relationships of taxa allocated to G4 is proposed.
Phylogeny, Phylogenesis
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
2015-12-29 09:45:25Z

Acanthella acuta Schmidt, 1862 (biology source)
Acantheurypon Topsent, 1927 (basis of record)
Acantheurypon pilosella (Topsent, 1904) (basis of record)
Adreus fascicularis (Bowerbank, 1866) (biology source)
Amphilectus fucorum (Esper, 1794) (biology source)
Antho involvens (Schmidt, 1864) represented as Antho (Antho) involvens (Schmidt, 1864) (biology source)
Axinella damicornis (Esper, 1794) (biology source)
Axinella dissimilis (Bowerbank, 1866) (biology source)
Axinella infundibuliformis (Linnaeus, 1759) (biology source)
Axinella parva Picton & Goodwin, 2007 (biology source)
Axinella pyramidata Stephens, 1916 (biology source)
Axinellida (redescription)
Biemna variantia (Bowerbank, 1858) (biology source)
Bubaris carcisis Vacelet, 1969 (biology source)
Ciocalypta penicillus Bowerbank, 1862 (biology source)
Clathria barleei (Bowerbank, 1866) represented as Clathria (Clathria) barleei (Bowerbank, 1866) (biology source)
Crella rosea (Topsent, 1892) represented as Crella (Yvesia) rosea (Topsent, 1892) (biology source)
Desmacella annexa Schmidt, 1870 (biology source)
Endectyon delaubenfelsi Burton, 1930 represented as Endectyon (Endectyon) delaubenfelsi Burton, 1930 (biology source)
Eurypon cinctum Sarà, 1960 (biology source)
Eurypon clavigerum (Bowerbank, 1866) (biology source)
Eurypon major Sarà & Siribelli, 1960 (biology source)
Halichondria (Eumastia) attenuata (Topsent, 1915) (biology source)
Halichondria bowerbanki Burton, 1930 represented as Halichondria (Halichondria) bowerbanki Burton, 1930 (biology source)
Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766) represented as Halichondria (Halichondria) panicea (Pallas, 1766) (biology source)
Halicnemia patera Bowerbank, 1864 (biology source)
Halicnemia verticillata (Bowerbank, 1866) (biology source)
Hemimycale columella (Bowerbank, 1874) (biology source)
Homaxinella subdola (Bowerbank, 1866) (biology source)
Hymeniacidon kitchingi (Burton, 1935) (biology source)
Hymeraphia breeni Picton & Goodwin, 2007 (biology source)
Hymerhabdia typica Topsent, 1892 (biology source)
Hymerhabdiidae Morrow, Picton, Erpenbeck, Boury-Esnault, Maggs & Allcock, 2012 (original description)
Lissodendoryx jenjonesae Picton & Goodwin, 2007 represented as Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) jenjonesae Picton & Goodwin, 2007 (biology source)
Mycale rotalis (Bowerbank, 1874) represented as Mycale (Aegogropila) rotalis (Bowerbank, 1874) (biology source)
Pachymatisma johnstonia (Bowerbank in Johnston, 1842) (biology source)
Paratimea constellata (Topsent, 1893) (biology source)
Phakellia ventilabrum (Linnaeus, 1767) (biology source)
Phorbas dives (Topsent, 1891) (biology source)
Polymastia boletiformis (Lamarck, 1815) (biology source)
Prosuberites longispinus Topsent, 1893 (biology source)
Raspailia aculeata (Johnston, 1842) accepted as Raspaciona aculeata (Johnston, 1842) (biology source)
Raspailia agnata (Topsent, 1896) represented as Raspailia (Parasyringella) agnata (Topsent, 1896) (biology source)
Raspailia hispida (Montagu, 1814) represented as Raspailia (Clathriodendron) hispida (Montagu, 1814) (biology source)
Scopalina lophyropoda Schmidt, 1862 (biology source)
Scopalinidae Morrow, Picton, Erpenbeck, Boury-Esnault, Maggs & Allcock, 2012 (original description)
Spongilla lacustris (Linnaeus, 1759) (biology source)
Stelletta grubii Schmidt, 1862 (biology source)
Stelletta lactea Carter, 1871 (biology source)
Stelligera Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Stelligera rigida (Montagu, 1814) accepted as Stelligera montagui Van Soest & Hooper, 2020 (biology source)
Stelligera stuposa (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (biology source)
Stelligeridae Lendenfeld, 1898 (redescription)
Styloptilon ancoratum Cabioch, 1968 accepted as Myxilla (Styloptilon) ancorata (Cabioch, 1968) (biology source)
Suberites ficus (Johnston, 1842) (biology source)
Suberites massa Nardo, 1847 (biology source)
Suberites pagurorum Solé-Cava & Thorpe, 1986 (biology source)
Terpios gelatinosa (Bowerbank, 1866) accepted as Terpios gelatinosus (Bowerbank, 1866) (biology source)
Tethya citrina Sarà & Melone, 1965 (biology source)
Tethya hibernica Heim, Nickel, Picton & Brümmer, 2007 (biology source)
Tethyspira spinosa (Bowerbank, 1874) (biology source)
Tetractinellida (redescription)
Celtic Seas for Acantheurypon pilosella (Topsent, 1904) 
Celtic Seas for Adreus fascicularis (Bowerbank, 1866) 
Celtic Seas for Amphilectus fucorum (Esper, 1794) 
Celtic Seas for Antho involvens (Schmidt, 1864) 
Celtic Seas for Axinella damicornis (Esper, 1794) 
Celtic Seas for Axinella dissimilis (Bowerbank, 1866) 
Celtic Seas for Axinella infundibuliformis (Linnaeus, 1759) 
Celtic Seas for Axinella parva Picton & Goodwin, 2007 
Celtic Seas for Axinella pyramidata Stephens, 1916 
Celtic Seas for Biemna variantia (Bowerbank, 1858) 
Celtic Seas for Bubaris carcisis Vacelet, 1969 
Celtic Seas for Ciocalypta penicillus Bowerbank, 1862 
Celtic Seas for Clathria barleei (Bowerbank, 1866) 
Celtic Seas for Crella rosea (Topsent, 1892) 
Celtic Seas for Desmacella annexa Schmidt, 1870 
Celtic Seas for Endectyon delaubenfelsi Burton, 1930 
Celtic Seas for Eurypon cinctum Sarà, 1960 
Celtic Seas for Eurypon clavigerum (Bowerbank, 1866) 
Celtic Seas for Eurypon major Sarà & Siribelli, 1960 
Celtic Seas for Halichondria bowerbanki Burton, 1930 
Celtic Seas for Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766) 
Celtic Seas for Halicnemia patera Bowerbank, 1864  (inaccurate)
Celtic Seas for Halicnemia verticillata (Bowerbank, 1866) 
Celtic Seas for Hemimycale columella (Bowerbank, 1874) 
Celtic Seas for Homaxinella subdola (Bowerbank, 1866) 
Celtic Seas for Hymeniacidon kitchingi (Burton, 1935) 
Celtic Seas for Hymerhabdia typica Topsent, 1892 
Celtic Seas for Lissodendoryx jenjonesae Picton & Goodwin, 2007 
Celtic Seas for Mycale rotalis (Bowerbank, 1874) 
Celtic Seas for Pachymatisma johnstonia (Bowerbank in Johnston, 1842) 
Celtic Seas for Paratimea constellata (Topsent, 1893)  (inaccurate)
Celtic Seas for Phakellia ventilabrum (Linnaeus, 1767) 
Celtic Seas for Phorbas dives (Topsent, 1891) 
Celtic Seas for Polymastia boletiformis (Lamarck, 1815) 
Celtic Seas for Raspailia aculeata (Johnston, 1842) 
Celtic Seas for Raspailia agnata (Topsent, 1896) 
Celtic Seas for Raspailia hispida (Montagu, 1814) 
Celtic Seas for Raspailia ramosa (Montagu, 1814) 
Celtic Seas for Stelletta grubii Schmidt, 1862 
Celtic Seas for Stelletta lactea Carter, 1871 
Celtic Seas for Stelligera rigida (Montagu, 1814) 
Celtic Seas for Stelligera stuposa (Ellis & Solander, 1786) 
Celtic Seas for Styloptilon ancoratum Cabioch, 1968 
Celtic Seas for Suberites ficus (Johnston, 1842) 
Celtic Seas for Suberites massa Nardo, 1847 
Celtic Seas for Suberites pagurorum Solé-Cava & Thorpe, 1986 
Celtic Seas for Terpios gelatinosa (Bowerbank, 1866) 
Celtic Seas for Tethya citrina Sarà & Melone, 1965 
Celtic Seas for Tethya hibernica Heim, Nickel, Picton & Brümmer, 2007 
Celtic Seas for Tethyspira spinosa (Bowerbank, 1874) 
Ireland for Spongilla lacustris (Linnaeus, 1759) 
Malvinas/Falklands for Halichondria (Eumastia) attenuata (Topsent, 1915) 
Western Mediterranean for Acanthella acuta Schmidt, 1862 
Western Mediterranean for Prosuberites longispinus Topsent, 1893 
Western Mediterranean for Scopalina lophyropoda Schmidt, 1862 

This genus was formerly assigned to family Hemiasterellidae, but genetic sequence data provided by Morrow et al. ... [details]

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