WoRMS taxon details

Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758)

100803  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:100803)

accepted
Species
Subspecies Actinia equina atlantica Schmidt, 1971 accepted as Actinia sali Monteiro, Sole-Cava & Thorpe, 1997
Subspecies Actinia equina cari Delle Chiaje, 1822 accepted as Actinia cari Delle Chiaje, 1822
Subspecies Actinia equina mediterranea Schmidt, 1971 accepted as Actinia mediterranea Schmidt, 1971
Subspecies Actinia equina mesembryanthemum Linn. accepted as Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758)
Subspecies Actinia equina prasina accepted as Actinia prasina Gosse, 1860
Variety Actinia equina var. chiococca Andr. accepted as Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758)
Variety Actinia equina var. fragacea Gosse accepted as Actinia fragacea Tugwell, 1856
Variety Actinia equina var. striata Quoy & Gaimard, 1833 accepted as Actinia striata Quoy & Gaimard, 1833
Variety Actinia equina var. striata Rizzi, 1907 accepted as Actinia striata Rizzi, 1907
Variety Actinia equina var. striata accepted as Paractinia striata (Risso, 1826)

Subspecies Actinia equina castanea (uncertain > nomen dubium)
Subspecies Actinia equina coccinea (uncertain > nomen dubium)
Subspecies Actinia equina concentrica (uncertain > nomen dubium)
Subspecies Actinia equina equina (uncertain > nomen dubium)
Subspecies Actinia equina glauca (uncertain > nomen dubium)
Subspecies Actinia equina hemisphaerica (uncertain > nomen dubium)
Subspecies Actinia equina hepatica (uncertain > nomen dubium)
Subspecies Actinia equina japonica (uncertain > nomen dubium)
Subspecies Actinia equina olivacea (uncertain > nomen dubium)
Subspecies Actinia equina pontica (uncertain > nomen dubium)
Subspecies Actinia equina rubra (uncertain > nomen dubium)
Subspecies Actinia equina rufa (uncertain > nomen dubium)
Variety Actinia equina var. umbrina (uncertain > nomen dubium)
Variety Actinia equina var. viridis (uncertain > nomen dubium)
marine
(of Priapus equinus Linnaeus, 1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. <em>Editio decima, reformata [10th revised edition], vol. 1: 824 pp. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae.</em> , available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/726886 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
Distribution Tropical Indo-Pacific in Kalk (1958).  
Distribution Tropical Indo-Pacific in Kalk (1958). [details]
Rodríguez, E.; Fautin, D; Daly, M. (2022). World List of Actiniaria. Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=100803 on 2022-10-01
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2015-10-13 10:34:41Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description  (of Priapus equinus Linnaeus, 1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. <em>Editio decima, reformata [10th revised edition], vol. 1: 824 pp. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae.</em> , available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/726886 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

original description  (of Priapus ruber Forsskål, 1775) Forsskål, P.; Niebuhr, C. (1775). Descriptiones animalium, avium, amphibiorum, piscium, insectorum, vermium / quae in itinere orientali observavit Petrus Forskål. Post mortem auctoris edidit Carsten Niebuhr. Adjuncta est materia medica kahirina atque tabula maris Rubri geographica. Hauniæ [Copenhagen]:ex officina Mölleri.[alternative spelling Forskål is also correct]. , available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2088059
page(s): 101-102 [details]   

original description  (of Actinia cerasum Dalyell, 1848) Dalyell, J. G. (1848). Rare and remarkable animals of Scotland, represented from living subjects: with practical observations on their nature. J.Van Voorst, London, 2: 1-iv, 322, available online at https://books.google.be/books?id=_vlKAQAAMAAJ&ots=A8k_UTOItn&dq=Dalyell%2C%20J.%20G.%091848%09Rare%20and%20remarkable%20animals%20of%20Scotland%2C%20represented%20from%20living%20subjects%3A%20with%20practical%20observations%20on%20their%20nature.&lr&pg=P
page(s): 219-223 [details]   

original description  (of Actinia chiococca Cocks in Johnston, 1847) Johnston, G. (1847). A history of British zoophytes. Van Voorst, Second edition, London. pp. vol. 1, pp. i-xvi, 1-488, vol. 2, plates 1-74. <em>Van Voorst, London.</em> 1: 1-499, figs 1-87; vol. 2: pls 1-74., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/17834260
page(s): 214 [details]   

original description  (of Actinia corallina Risso, 1827) Risso, A. (1827). Histoire Naturelle des Principales Productions de l'Europe Méridionale et Particulièrement de Celles des Environs de Nice et des Alpes Maritimes. Tome V. <em>Paris: F.-G. Levrault.</em> i-viii + 1-403 pp., [pls. 1-10], figs. 1-62., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/39428259
page(s): 285 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Actinia hemispherica Pennant, 1777) Pennant, T. (1777). British Zoology, vol. IV. Crustacea. Mollusca. Testacea. <em>London.</em> i-viii, 1-154, pls. 1-93., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/127011
page(s): 41-42 [50] [details]   

original description  (of Actinia margaritifera Templeton, 1836) Templeton, R. (1836). A catalogue of the species of rayed animals found in Ireland, as selected from papers of the late J. Templeton, Esq., of Cranmore, with notices of localities, and with some descriptions and illustrations. <em>Magazine of natural History.</em> 9: 233-240, 301-305, 417-422, 466-472., available online at http://www.archive.org/stream/magazineofnatura09loud#page/417/mode/1up
page(s): 304 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Actinia purpurea Cuvier, 1798) Cuvier G. (1798). Tableau élémentaire de l'histoire naturelle des animaux. <em>Paris :Baudouin, imprimeur.</em> 710 pp., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11637076
page(s): 653 [details]   

context source (HKRMS) Morton, B. & Morton, J. (1983). <i>The sea shore ecology of Hong Kong</i>. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. 350 pp.  [details]   

context source (Hexacorallia) Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record van der Land, J.; den Hartog, J.H. (2001). Actiniaria, <B><I>in</I></B>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,</i> 50: pp. 106-109 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Pennant, Thomas. (1812). British Zoology. A new edition in four volumes. vol IV. Class V. Crustacea. Class VI. Vermes. Wilkie & Robinson. London. xvi+379 pp. 95 pls., available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/34933712
page(s): 106 [details]   

additional source MacNae, W. & M. Kalk (eds). (1958). A natural history of Inhaca Island, Mozambique. Witwatersrand Univ. Press, Johannesburg. I-iv, 163 pp. [details]   

additional source de Blainville, H. M. (1830). Zoophytes. In: Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles, dans lequel on traitre méthodiquement des differéns êtres de la nature, considérés soit en eux-mêmes, d'après l'état actuel de nos connoissances, soit relativement à l'utlité qu'en peuvent retirer la médicine, l'agriculture, le commerce et les arts. Edited by F. G. Levrault. Tome 60. Paris, Le Normat. Pp. 548, pls. 68. <em>Paris, 1830.</em> 60 : 1-546., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/25318344
page(s): 291 [details]   

additional source Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. <em>Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France.</em> 307 pp., available online at http://www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/145561.pdf [details]   

additional source Müller, O.F. (1776). <em>Zoologiæ Danicæ Prodromus, seu Animalium Daniæ et Norvegiæ indigenarum characteres, nomina, et synonyma imprimis popularium.</em> Havniæ [Copenhagen]: Hallageri. xxxii + 274 pp., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/47550
page(s): 231 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Moore, H. B. (1937). Marine fauna of the Isle of Man. <em>Proceedings and Transactions of the Liverpool Biological Society.</em> 50: 1-293, maps 1-3. (Crustacea: 87-142).
page(s): 54 [details]   

additional source Gili, J.M., 1982. Fauna de cnidaris de les illes Medes. Treballs Inst. Cat. Hist. nat. 10 : 1-175.
page(s): 117-118 [details]   

additional source Hamond, R. & B.G. Williams, 1977. The Ctenophora, Scyphozoa and Anthozoa of Norfolk, with additional notes on the Hydrozoa. Trans. Norfolk Norwich Nat. Soc. 24 : 58-74..
page(s): 61 [details]   

additional source Ates, R.M.L., 1991. Predation on Cnidaria by vertebrates other than fishes. In: R.B. Williams, P.F.S. Cornelius, R.G. Hughes & E.A. Robson, eds., 1991. Coelenterate Biology: Recent research on Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Hydrobiologia 216217 : 305-307.
page(s): 305 [details]   

additional source Robins, M.W., 1969. The marine flora and fauna of the Isles of Scilly. Cnidaria e Ctenophora. J. nat. Hist. 3 : 329-343.
page(s): 340 [details]   

additional source Ross, D.M., 1974. Behavior patterns in associations and interactions with other animals. In: L. Muscatine & H.M. Lenhoff, eds, Coelenterate Biology. Reviews and new perspectives : 281-312.
page(s): 296, 303 [details]   

additional source Teissier, G., 1950. Inventaire de la faune marine de Roscoff. Cnidaires et cténaires. Trav. biol. Roscoff. n. ser. suppl. 1: 1-43.
page(s): 34-35 [details]   

additional source Weill, R., 1929. New results from the study of Coelenterate nematocysts. Proc. U.S. Natn. Acad. Sci. 15 12: 887-892.
page(s): 891 [details]   

additional source Weill, R., 1934. Contribution à l'étude des Cnidaires et de leurs nématocystes. II. Valeur taxonomique du cnidôme. Trav. Stn zool. Wimereux 11 : 349-701.
page(s): 357, 562-565, Figs. 366-369, 570, 592 [details]   

additional source Schmidt, H., 1969. Die nesselkapseln der aktinien und ihre differentialdiagnostische bedeutung. The nematocysts of the sea anemones and their importance for differential-diagnosis. Helgoländer wiss. Meeresunters. 19 : 284-317.
page(s): 290, 307 [details]   

additional source Chintiroglou, C. & A. Koukouras, 1991. Observations on the feeding habits of Calliactis parasitica (Couch, 1842), Anthozoa, Cnidaria. Oceanologica Acta 14 4: 389-396.
page(s): 390 [details]   

additional source Heller C. (1868). Die Zoophyten und Echinodermen des Adriatischen Meeres. <em>Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft von Wien.</em> 18, supplement: 1-88, 3 plates., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/43291
page(s): 11-12 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Graeffe E. (1884). Übersicht der Seethierfauna des Golfes von Triest, nebst Notizen über Vorkommen, Lebensweise, Erscheinungs- und Fortpflanzungszeit der einzelnen Arten. III Coelenteraten. <em>Arbeiten des Zoologischen Instituts der Universität Wien.</em> 5: 333-362., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/5242020
page(s): 337 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Dixon, G.Y. & A.F. Dixon, 1891. Report on the marine Invertebrate fauna near Dublin. Proc R. Ir. Acad. -32 : 19-33.
page(s): 23, 27-28 [details]   

additional source Hartlaub C. (1894). Die Coelenteraten Helgolands. Vorläufiger Bericht. <em>Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen n. ser.</em> 1(1): 161-206., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/15339477
page(s): 201-202 [details]   

additional source Stephens, J. (1905). A list of Irish Coelenterata, including the Ctenophora. <em>Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy.</em> 25: 25-92.
page(s): 75 [details]   

additional source Bruguière J.G. (1789-1792). <i>Encyclopédie méthodique ou par ordre de matières. Histoire naturelle des vers</i>, volume 1. Paris: Pancoucke. Pp. i-xviii, 1-344 [Livraison 32, June 1789]; 345-757 [Livraison 48, 13 Feb. 1792] [Dates after Evenhuis, 2003, <i>Zootaxa</i>, 166: 37; <i>Zootaxa</i>, 207]. , available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/8892006
page(s): 9 [details]   

additional source Laverack, M. S.; Blackler, M. (eds). (1974). Fauna and flora of St. Andrews Bay. <em>Edinburgh & London, Scottish Academic Press.</em> pp. 310.
page(s): 29 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1921). Actiniaria I. <em>Danish Ingolf-Expedition.</em> 5(9):1-241, figs. 1-210, pls. 1-4., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/19695128
page(s): 137-139 [details]   

additional source Turton, W. (1807). British Fauna, containing a compendium of the zoology of the British Islands; arranged according to the Linnean system. Vol. 1, Mammalia, birds, Amphibia, fishes and worms. 1-230., available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/21554423
page(s): 130 [details]   

additional source Williams, R.B. (1979). A survey of the littoral Anthozoa, with additional notes on some other marine invertebrates of Gower, South Wales. Nature in Wales 16(4):253-266.
page(s): 255 [details]   

additional source Blainville, H. M. D. de. (1834). Manuel d'actinologie ou de zoophytologie. <em>F.G. Levroult. Paris: Strasbourg.</em> 1-2: 1-644, pls. I-C., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/9680581
page(s): 324 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Leloup, E. (1964). Larves de Cerianthaires. <em>Discovery reports.</em> 33: 251-307.
page(s): 258 [details]   

additional source Gravier, Ch., 1920. Larves d'Actiniaires provenant des campagnes scientifiques de S. A. S. le Prince Albert I de Monaco. Résultats des Campagnes Scientifiques Accomplies sur son Yacht par Albert I Prince Souverain de Monaco 57: 3-25.
page(s): 5 [details]   

additional source Gravenhorst I.L.C. (1831). Tergestina, oder Beobachtungen und Untersuchungen über einige bei Triest im Meere lebende Arten der Gattungen <i>Octopus, Doris, Pinna, Ascidia, Serpula, Echinus, Asterias, Ophiura, Holothuria, Actinia, Caryophyllia, Actinotus</i>. <i>Breslau [Wroclaw], W.G. Korn. 166 p.</i>: , available online at http://books.google.com/books?id=xRAAAAAAQAAJ
page(s): 121-122, 130 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1924). Die larven der Ceriantharien, Zoantharien und Actiniarien der deutschen Tiefsee-expedition mit einen Nachtrag zu den Zoantharien. <em>Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition auf dem Dampfer "Valdivia" 1898-1899.</em> 19: 339-476.
page(s): 469 [details]   

additional source Poche, 1907. Über den richtigen Gebrauch der Gattungsnamen Holothuria und Actinia, nebst einigen andern, grössenteils dadurch bedingten oder damit in Zusammenhang stehenden Änderungen in der Nomenclatur der Coelenteraten, Echinodemen und Tunicaten. Zoologischer Anzeiger 32: 126-128.
page(s): 108-109 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1938). South African Actiniaria and Zoantharia. <em>Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar.</em> 17(3): 1-148.
page(s): 29-31 [details]   

additional source Gravier, C. (1918). Note preliminaire sur les Hexactiniaires recueillis au cours des croisieres de la Princesse-Alice et de l'Hirondelle de 1888 a 1913 inclusivement. <i>Bull. Inst. Oceanogr., Monaco</i>. 346:1-24.
page(s): 1 [details]   

additional source Braber, L.; Borghouts, H. (1977) Distribution and ecology of Anthozoa in the estuarine region of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt., Hydrobiologia 52: 15-20
page(s): 16-17 [details]   

additional source Dunn, Daphne Fautin (1982) Sexual reproduction of two intertidal sea anemone (Coelenterata: Actinaria) in Malaysia, Biotropica 14: 262-271
page(s): 267 [details]   

additional source Hand, C.; Uhlinger, K. R. (1994). The Unique, Widely Distributed, Estuarine Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson: A Review, New Facts, and Questions. Estuaries. 17(2): 501-508., available online at http://www.jstor.org/stable/1352679
page(s): 503 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Stephenson, T. A. (1935). The British Sea Anemones. Volume II. <em>The Ray Society. London.</em> pp. 426.
page(s): 113-123 [details]   

additional source Andres, A. (1884). Le attinie. Volume primo, contente bibliografia, introduzione e specigrafia. , available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/81386
page(s): 189-194, 388-389 [details]   

additional source den Hartog, J.C. & Ocaña, O. (2003). A new endemic Actinia species (Actiniaria: Actiniidae) from the central Macaronesian Archipelagos. <em>Zoologische Mededelingen.</em> 77: 229-244.
page(s): 233 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Grube, A E. (1864). Die Insel Lussin und ihre Meeresfauna. Breslau
page(s): 106 [details]   

additional source Schama, R.; Mitchell, M.; Solé-Cava, A. M. (2011). Actinia ebhayiensis sp. nov., a new species of sea anemone (Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Actiniidae) from South Africa. <em>Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.</em> 92(05): 885-894., available online at https://doi.org/10.1017/s0025315411001305
page(s): 885-892 [details]   

additional source Grieg, J. A. (1898). Skrabninger i Vaagsfjorden og Ulvesund, ytie Nordfjord. Bergens Mus. Aarsb., (1897) 16 : 1-27.
page(s): 6 [details]   

additional source den Hartog J.C., Ates R.M.L. (2011). Actiniaria from Ria de Arosa, Galicia, northwestern Spain, in the Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis, Leiden. <em>Zoologische Mededelingen, Leiden.</em> 85 (2): 11-53.
page(s): 37-38 [details]   

additional source Manuel, R. L. (1981). British Anthozoa. <em>London: Academic Press.</em> 241 pp. (Synopses of the British Fauna).
page(s): 99-100 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1949). A survey of the Ptychodactiaria, Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria. <em>Kungliga Svenska Vet- enskapsakadamiens Handlingar.</em> 1: 1–121.
page(s): 49 [details]   

additional source Fischer, P. (1889). Nouvelle contribution à l actinologie française. <em>Actes de la Société linnéenne de Bordeaux.</em> 43(5): 251-309. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 252, 283, 294-296 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Harms, J. (1993). Check list of species (algae, invertebrates and vertebrates) found in the vicinity of the island of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight) - a review of recent records. Helgolaender Meeresuntersuchungen, 47(1): 1-34, available online at http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02366182
page(s): 16 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Monteiro, F. A.; Solé-Cava, A. M.; Thorpe, J. P. (1997). Extensive genetic divergence between populations of the common intertidal sea anemone Actinia equina from Britain, the Mediterranean and the Cape Verde Islands. <em>Marine Biology.</em> 129(3): 425-433., available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/s002270050183
page(s): 425-432 [details]   

additional source Bosc, L.A.G. (1802). Histoire Naturelle des Crustacés Contenant leur Description et leurs Moeurs; avec Figures Dessinées, d'Après Nature. <em>Paris: Chez Deterville.</em> 2: 1-296, pls. 6-18., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/27817320
page(s): 218 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Pax F. (1908). Die Aktinienfauna Westafrikas. <em>Denkschrift. medizin. naturwiss. Gesellschaft Jena.</em> 13: 463-504.
page(s): 467 [265], 497 [295]-499 [297] [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Doumenc, D.; Chintiroglou, C.; Foubert, A. (1989). Variabilité du genre Telmatactis Gravier. <em>Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris,.</em> 11: 5-45.
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additional source Milne Edwards H,. (1857). Histoire naturelle des coralliaires, ou polypes proprement dits. 1. <em>Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris.</em> 326 pp., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12045211
page(s): 238-240 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Pennington, A. S. (1885). British zoophytes: an introduction to the Hydrozoa, Actinozoa, and Polyzoa fround in Great Britain, Ireland, and the Channel Islands. L. Reeve & Co., London, 363 pp.
page(s): 163-165 [details]   

additional source Jourdan, E. (1880). Recherches zoologiques et histologiques sur les Zoanthaires du golfe de Marseille. <em>Annales des Sciences naturelles, Zoologie.</em> 10(1): 1-154.
page(s): 10-11, 17-18, 22, 26-28, 59, 65-78, 84, 87, 98, 117, 119, 127-130, 135, 137, 140-141 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Abel, E.F. (1959). Zur Kenntnis der marinen Hohlenfauna unter besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Anthozoen. <em>Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli.</em> 30 (Suppl. 1): 1-94.
page(s): 21-22, 75, 76, 78, 80, 83, 85 [details]   

additional source Watzl, O. (1922). Die Aktiniarien der Bahamainseln. <em>Arkiv för Zoologi.</em> 14(24): 1-89.
page(s): 23 [details]   

additional source Ottaway, J. R. (1979). Population Ecology of the Intertidal Anemone *Actinia tenebrosa.* II. * Geographical Distribution, Synonymy, Reproductive Cycle and Fecundity. <em>Australian Journal of Zoology.</em> 27(2), 273-290.
page(s): 273, 276, 281, 283, 284, 286 [details]   

additional source den Hartog, J. C. (1977). Notes on the little known sea anemone Cataphellia brodricii and on the closely allied Hormathia coronata and Paraphellia expansa (Actiniaria, Hormathiidae). Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 27(3): 237-244
page(s): 239, Pl. I fig. 4a [details]   

additional source Haylor, G. S.; Thorpe, J. P.; Carter, M. A. (1984). Genetic and ecological differentiation between sympatric colour morphs of the common intertidal sea anemone Actinia equina. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 16, 281-289
page(s): 281-288 [details]   

additional source McCommas, S. A.; Lester, L. J. (1980). Electrophoretic evaluation of the taxonomic status of two species of sea anemone. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 8, 289-292
page(s): 289 [details]   

additional source Manuel, R. L. (1977). A redescription of Edwardsia beautempsi and E. timida (Actiniaria: Edwardsidae). Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 18, 483-497
page(s): 484 [details]   

additional source Andres, A. (1883). Le Attinie (Monografia). Coi Tipi der Salviucci. Roma., volume 1 (Bibliografia, introduzione e specigrafia), pp. 460.
page(s): 189-194, 388-389 [details]   

additional source Milne Edwards, H.; Haime, J. (1851). Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. Gide et J. Baudry. Paris., volume 5: Monographie des polypiers fossiles des terrains palfozooques, pricidie d'un tableau gineral de la classification des polypes., pp. 502.
page(s): 8 [details]   

additional source Nafilyan, Z. (1912). Matériaux pour la faune des Actinies des côtes de France. Les Actinies de Roscoff. Memoirs of the Society of Zoology of France, 25, 5-44
page(s): 6, 11-13, 15 [details]   

additional source Ottaway, J. R. (1975). Review of Actinia, Isactinia, and Cnidopus (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 9(1): 53-61
page(s): 55 [details]   

additional source Panikkar, N. K. (1937). A study of the actinian Phytocoetes gangeticus Annandale, with an account of the post-larval development and the occurrence of neoteny in the anemone. Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung für Anatomie und Ontogenie der Tiere, 62(3): 395-422
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additional source Torrey, H. B. (1904). On the habits and reactions of Sagartia davisi. Biological Bulletin, VI(5): 203-216
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additional source Monteiro, F. A.; Russo, C. A. M.; Solé-Cava, A. M.; Gittenberger, A. (1998). Genetic evidence for the asexual origin of small individuals found in the coelenteron of the sea anemone Actinia bermudensis McMurrich. Bulletin of Marine Science, 63(2): 257-264
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additional source Excoffon, A. C.; Zamponi, M. O. (1991). La biologia reproductiva de Phymactis clematis Dana, 1849 (Actiniaria: Actiniidae): gametogenesis, periodos reproductivos, desarrollo embrionario y larval. Spheniscus, 9, 25-39
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additional source Zaharenko, A. J.; Ferreira, W. A.; Oliveira, J. S.; Richardson, M.; Pimenta, D. C.; Konno, K.; Portaro, F. C. V.; Freitas, J. C. (2008). Proteomics of the neurotoxic fraction from the sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum venom: novel peptides belonging to new classes of toxins. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part D, 3, 219-225
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additional source Edmunds, P. J. (2007). Physiological ecology of the clonal corallimorpharian Corynactis californica. Marine Biology, 150, 783-796
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additional source Honma, T.; Shiomi, K. (2006). Peptide toxins in sea anemones: structural and functional aspects. Marine Biotechnology, 8, 1-10
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additional source Zamponi, M. O. (1979). El desarrollo asexual de Pseudoparactis tenuicollis McMurrich, 1904 (Actiniaria: Actinostolidae) y algunas consideraciones sobre su ecologia. Acta Zoologica Lilloana, XXXV, 596-602
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additional source Morales, L.; Acevedo, O.; Martínez, M.; Gokhman, D.Corredor, C. (2009). Functional discrimination of sea anemone neurotoxins using 3D-plotting. Central European Journal of Biology, 4(1): 41-49
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additional source Schmidt, H.; Béress, L. (1971). Phylogenetische betrachtungen zur toxizität und nesselwirkung einiger Actiniaria (Anthozoa) im vergleich zur morphologie ihrer nesselkapseln. Kieler Meeresforschungen, XXVII(2): 166-170
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additional source Hasegawa, Y.; Honma, T.; Nagai, H.; Ishida, M.; Nagashima, Y.; Shiomi, K. (2006). Isolation and cDNA cloning of a potassium channel peptide toxin from the sea anemone Anemonia erythraea. Toxicon, 48, 536-542
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additional source Schmidt, H. (1972). Bionomische studien an Mediterranen Anthozoen: die Anthozoenfauna des Strombolicchio (Äolische Inseln). Marine Biology, 15, 265-278
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additional source Okada, Y. K.; Komori, S. (1932). Reproduction asexuelle d'une actinie (Boloceroides) et sa régénération aux dépens d'un tentacule. Bulletin Biologique de la France et de Belgique, 66, 164-199
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additional source Patronelli, L.; Méndez, P.; Olivera, E. G. (2000). Calcio y calmodulina en el mecanismo contractil del esfinter marginal de la anemona Phymactis clematis (Actiniaria). Biociências, 8(2): 19-32
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additional source Verde, E. A.; McCloskey, L. R. (2007). A comparative analysis of the photobiology of zooxanthellae and zoochlorellae symbiotic with the temperate clonal anemone Anthopleura elegantissima (Brandt). III. Seasonal effects of natural light and temperature on photosynthesis and respiration. Marine Biology, 152, 775-792
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additional source Chen, C.; Soong, K.; Chen, C. A. (2008). The smallest oocytes among broadcast-spawning actiniarians and a unique lunar reproductive cycle in a unisexual population of the sea anemone, Aiptasia pulchella (Anthozoa: Actiniaria). Zoological Studies, 47(1): 37-45
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additional source Honma, T.; Minagawa, S.; Nagai, H.; Ishida, M.; Nagashima, Y.; Shiomi, K. (2005). Novel peptide toxins from acrorhagi, aggressive organs of the sea anemone Actinia equina. Toxicon, 46, 7, 768-774
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additional source Sherman, C. D. H.; Peucker, A. J.; Ayre, D. J. (2007). Do reproductive tactics vary with habitat heterogeneity in the intertidal sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa?. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 340, 259-267
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additional source Williams, R. B. (1978). Some recent observations on the acrorhagi of sea anemones. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 58, 787-788
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additional source Ninh, T. D.; Nagashima, Y.; Shiomi, K. (2008). Unusual arsenic speciation in sea anemones. Chemosphere, 70, 1168-1174
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additional source Ross, D. M. (1960). The association between the hermit crab Eupagurus bernhardus (L.) and the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica (Couch). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 134, 1, 43-57
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additional source Ates, R. M. L. (2001). Kwallen als voedsel van zeeanemonen en van stormvogels [Jellyfish as food for sea anemones and fulmars]. Het Zeepaard, 62(5): 132-135
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additional source Monroy-Estrada, H. I.; Segura-Puertas, L.; Galván-Arzate, S.; Santamaría, A.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, J. (2007). The crude venom from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus induces haemolysis and slight peroxidative damage in rat and human erythrocytes. Toxicology in Vitro, 21, 398-402
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additional source Alegre-Cebollada, J.; Oñaderra, M.; Gavilanes, J. G.; Martínez del Pozo, A. (2007). Sea anemone actinoporins: the transition from a folded soluble state to a functionally active membrane-bound oligomeric pore. Current Protein and Peptide Science, 8, 558-572
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additional source Corrêa, D. D. (1964). Corallimorpharia e Actiniaria do Atlantico Oeste Tropical. Universidade de São Paulo (Dissertation). São Paulo., pp. 139.
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additional source Hoeksema, B. W.; Crowther, A. L. (2011). Masquerade, mimicry and crypsis of the polymorphic sea anemone Phyllodiscus semoni and its aggreagations in South Sulawesi. Contributions to Zoology, 80(4): 251-268
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additional source Ramil Blanco, F.; Pulpeiro, E. F. (1990). Inventario de los antozoos de Galicia. A checklist of the Anthozoa from Galicia. Boletin de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 86(1-4): 17-30
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additional source Williams, R. B. (1975). A redescription of the brackish-water sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, with an appraisal of congeneric species. Journal of Natural History, 9, 51-64
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additional source Williams, R. B.; Cornelius, P. F. S.; Clark, A. M. (1982). Proposed conservation of Actinia Linnaeus, 1767 and Actiniidae Goldfuss, 1820 (Coelenterata, Actiniaria) and Pentacta Goldfuss, 1820 (Echinodermata, Holothurioidea) Z.N.(S.) 825. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 39(4): 288-292
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additional source Il'ina, A. P.; Lipkin, A.; Barsova, E.; Issaeva, M. P.; Leychenko, E.; Guzev, K. V.; Monastyrnaya, M. M.; Lukyanov, S.; Kozlovskaya, E. P. (2006). Amino acid sequence of RTX-A's isoform actinoporin from the sea anemone, Radianthus macrodactylus. Toxicon, 47, 517-520
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additional source Honma, T.; Kawahata, S.; Ishida, M.; Nagai, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Shiomi, K. (2008). Novel peptide proteins from the sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni. Peptides, 29, 536-544
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additional source Delphy, J. (1939). Sur quelques problèmes d' Actinologie. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris), XI, 2, (5): 479-483
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additional source Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Linnaeus, C. (1767). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Ed. 12. 1., Regnum Animale. 1 & 2. <em>Holmiae [Stockholm], Laurentii Salvii.</em> pp. 1-532 [1766] pp. 533-1327 [1767]., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/83650#5
page(s): 1088 [details]  OpenAccess publication 
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
    Definitions

Nontype (of Actinia (Entacmaea) mesembryanthemum Ellis & Solander, 1786) MNB 173, geounit Saudi Arabian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Unknown type Dzull AA-23, geounit Cape Verdean Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
From other sources
Distribution Tropical Indo-Pacific in Kalk (1958). [details]
LanguageName 
Albanian thundërkali e kuqeanemonia e kuqe  [details]
Catalan tomàquet de mar  [details]
Dutch rode paardenanemoonrode paardeanemoonpaardenanemoongewone zeeanemoongemeene zeeanemoon  [details]
English red sea anemoneplum anemonebeadlet anemone  [details]
Finnish hepomerivuokko  [details]
French actinie rouge  [details]
German PurpurrosePferdeaktinie  [details]
Italian pomodoro di mare  [details]
Japanese ウメボシイソギンチャク  [details]
Modern Greek (1453-) Κόκκινη ανεμώνα  [details]
Portuguese Morango-do-mar  [details]
Spanish tomate de mar  [details]