WoRMS taxon details

Antipathes Pallas, 1766

103302  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:103302)

accepted
Genus
Antipathes (Euantipathes) van Pesch, 1914 · unaccepted (subjective synonym)

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  1. Species Antipathes aculeata (Brook, 1889)
  2. Species Antipathes arborea Dana, 1846
  3. Species Antipathes assimilis (Brook, 1889)
  4. Species Antipathes atlantica Gray, 1857
  5. Species Antipathes brookii (Whitelegge, 1899)
  6. Species Antipathes caribbeana Opresko, 1996
  7. Species Antipathes ceylonensis (Thomson & Simpson, 1905)
  8. Species Antipathes chamaemorus Pax & Tischbierek, 1932
  9. Species Antipathes chota Cooper, 1903
  10. Species Antipathes clathrata Pallas, 1766
  11. Species Antipathes coronata Opresko, 2019
  12. Species Antipathes craticulata Opresko, 2015
  13. Species Antipathes curvata van Pesch, 1914
  14. Species Antipathes delicatula Schultze, 1896
  15. Species Antipathes dendrochristos Opresko, 2005
  16. Species Antipathes densa Silberfeld, 1909
  17. Species Antipathes dichotoma Pallas, 1766
  18. Species Antipathes dicrocrada Opresko, 2019
  19. Species Antipathes dubia (Brook, 1889)
  20. Species Antipathes elegans (Thomson & Simpson, 1905)
  21. Species Antipathes falkorae Horowitz, 2022
  22. Species Antipathes fragilis Gravier, 1918
  23. Species Antipathes fruticosa Gray, 1857
  24. Species Antipathes furcata Gray, 1857
  25. Species Antipathes galapagensis Deichmann, 1941
  26. Species Antipathes gallensis Thomson & Simpson, 1905
  27. Species Antipathes gracilis Gray, 1860
  28. Species Antipathes grandiflora Silberfeld, 1909
  29. Species Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928
  30. Species Antipathes grayi (Roule, 1902)
  31. Species Antipathes griggi Opresko, 2009
  32. Species Antipathes hypnoides (Brook, 1889)
  33. Species Antipathes indistincta van Pesch, 1914
  34. Species Antipathes irregularis Cooper, 1909
  35. Species Antipathes irregularis (Thomson & Simpson, 1905)
  36. Species Antipathes lenta Pourtalès, 1871
  37. Species Antipathes lentipinna Brook, 1889
  38. Species Antipathes leptocrada Opresko, 2015
  39. Species Antipathes longibrachiata van Pesch, 1914
  40. Species Antipathes minor (Brook, 1889)
  41. Species Antipathes morrisi Horowitz, 2022
  42. Species Antipathes nilanduensis Cooper, 1903
  43. Species Antipathes pauroclema Pax & Tischbierek, 1932
  44. Species Antipathes plana Cooper, 1909
  45. Species Antipathes plantagenista (Cooper, 1903)
  46. Species Antipathes polyhedra Opresko, 2019
  47. Species Antipathes pseudodichotoma Silberfeld, 1909
  48. Species Antipathes regularis Cooper, 1903
  49. Species Antipathes rhipidion Pax, 1916
  50. Species Antipathes rubra Cooper, 1903
  51. Species Antipathes rubusiformis Warner & Opresko, 2004
  52. Species Antipathes salicoides Summers, 1910
  53. Species Antipathes sarothrum Pax, 1932
  54. Species Antipathes sealarki Cooper, 1909
  55. Species Antipathes sibogae van Pesch, 1914
  56. Species Antipathes simplex (Schultze, 1896)
  57. Species Antipathes speciosa (Brook, 1889)
  58. Species Antipathes spinulosa (Schultze, 1896)
  59. Species Antipathes sylospongia Opresko & Wagner, 2020
  60. Species Antipathes taxiformis Duchassaing, 1870
  61. Species Antipathes ternatensis Schultze, 1896
  62. Species Antipathes thamnoides (Schultze, 1896)
  63. Species Antipathes tristis (Duchassaing, 1870)
  64. Species Antipathes umbratica Opresko, 1996
  65. Species Antipathes viminalis Roule, 1902
  66. Species Antipathes virgata Esper, 1798
  67. Species Antipathes zoothallus Pax, 1932
  68. Subgenus Antipathes (Antipathella) accepted as Antipathella Brook, 1889 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    1. Species Antipathes (Antipathella) ceylonensis (Thomson & Simpson, 1905) accepted as Antipathes ceylonensis (Thomson & Simpson, 1905) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  69. Subgenus Antipathes (Aphanipathes) Brook, 1889 accepted as Aphanipathes Brook, 1889 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    1. Species Antipathes (Aphanipathes) reticulata Van Pesch, 1914 (accepted > unreplaced junior homonym)
    2. Species Antipathes (Aphanipathes) cancellata (Brook, 1889) accepted as Phanopathes cancellata (Brook, 1889) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    3. Species Antipathes (Aphanipathes) pennacea Pallas, 1766 accepted as Plumapathes pennacea (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    4. Species Antipathes (Aphanipathes) sibogae Van Pesch, 1914 accepted as Antipathes sibogae van Pesch, 1914 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    5. Species Antipathes (Aphanipathes) undulata Van Pesch, 1914 accepted as Acanthopathes undulata (van Pesch, 1914) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    6. Species Antipathes (Aphanipathes) indistincta Van Pesch, 1914 represented as Antipathes indistincta van Pesch, 1914
  70. Subgenus Antipathes (Arachnopathes) accepted as Arachnopathes Milne Edwards H., 1857 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    1. Species Antipathes (Arachnopathes) columnaris (Duchassaing, 1870) accepted as Stylopathes columnaris (Duchassaing, 1870) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  71. Subgenus Antipathes (Euantipathes) van Pesch, 1914 accepted as Antipathes Pallas, 1766 (subjective synonym)
    1. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) abies (Linnaeus, 1758) accepted as Cupressopathes abies (Linnaeus, 1758) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    2. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) contorta (Brook, 1889) accepted as Tylopathes contorta (Brook, 1889) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    3. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) crispa (Brook, 1889) accepted as Tylopathes crispa Brook, 1889 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    4. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) curvata Van Pesch, 1914 accepted as Antipathes curvata van Pesch, 1914 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    5. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) densa Silberfeld, 1909 accepted as Antipathes densa Silberfeld, 1909 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    6. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) dichotoma Pallas, 1766 accepted as Antipathes dichotoma Pallas, 1766 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    7. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) ericoides Pallas, 1766 accepted as Arachnopathes ericoides (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    8. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) flabellum Pallas, 1766 accepted as Antipathes flabellum Pallas, 1766 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    9. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) fragilis Gravier, 1918 accepted as Antipathes fragilis Gravier, 1918 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    10. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) glaberrima Esper, 1792 accepted as Leiopathes glaberrima (Esper, 1792) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    11. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) japonica Brook, 1889 accepted as Myriopathes japonica (Brook, 1889) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    12. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) longibrachiata van Pesch, 1914 accepted as Antipathes longibrachiata van Pesch, 1914 (superseded combination)
    13. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) minor (Brook, 1889) accepted as Antipathes minor (Brook, 1889) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    14. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) myriophylla Pallas, 1766 accepted as Myriopathes myriophylla (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    15. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) plana Cooper, 1909 accepted as Antipathes plana Cooper, 1909 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    16. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) rugosa (Thomson & Simpson, 1905) accepted as Myriopathes rugosa (Thomson & Simpson, 1905) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
    17. Species Antipathes (Euantipathes) ulex Ellis & Solander, 1786 accepted as Myriopathes ulex (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  72. Subgenus Antipathes (Stichopathes) Brook, 1889 accepted as Stichopathes Brook, 1889
    1. Species Antipathes (Stichopathes) gracilis Gray, 1857 accepted as Stichopathes gracilis (Gray, 1857)
  73. Species Antipathes abies (Linnaeus, 1758) accepted as Cupressopathes abies (Linnaeus, 1758) (new combination)
  74. Species Antipathes abietina Pourtalès, 1874 accepted as Elatopathes abietina (Pourtalès, 1874) (new combination)
  75. Species Antipathes aenea von Koch, 1889 accepted as Antipathes dichotoma Pallas, 1766 (jun. synonym)
  76. Species Antipathes americana Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860 accepted as Stylopathes americana (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860) (unaccepted > superseded combination, new combination)
  77. Species Antipathes anguina Dana, 1846 accepted as Cirrhipathes anguina (Dana, 1846) (new combination)
  78. Species Antipathes antrocrada Opresko, 1999 accepted as Myriopathes antrocrada (Opresko, 1999) (New combination)
  79. Species Antipathes aperta Totton, 1923 accepted as Antipathella aperta (Totton, 1923) (new combination)
  80. Species Antipathes arctica Lütken, 1871 accepted as Stauropathes arctica (Lütken, 1871) (new combination)
  81. Species Antipathes barbadensis (Brook, 1889) accepted as Tanacetipathes barbadensis (Brook, 1889) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  82. Species Antipathes bifaria Brook, 1889 accepted as Myriopathes bifaria (Brook, 1889) (new combination)
  83. Species Antipathes cancellata (Brook, 1889) accepted as Phanopathes cancellata (Brook, 1889) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  84. Species Antipathes catharinae (Pax, 1932) accepted as Myriopathes catharinae (Pax, 1932)
  85. Species Antipathes columnaris (Duchassaing, 1870) accepted as Stylopathes columnaris (Duchassaing, 1870) (unaccepted > superseded combination, new combination)
  86. Species Antipathes contorta (Brook, 1889) accepted as Tylopathes contorta (Brook, 1889) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  87. Species Antipathes crispa (Brook, 1889) accepted as Tylopathes crispa Brook, 1889 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  88. Species Antipathes cupressina Pallas, 1766 accepted as Cupressopathes abies (Linnaeus, 1758) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  89. Species Antipathes cupressus Ellis & Solander, 1786 accepted as Cupressopathes abies (Linnaeus, 1758) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  90. Species Antipathes cylindrica Brook, 1889 accepted as Cupressopathes cylindrica (Brook, 1889) (new combination)
  91. Species Antipathes delicata Schultze, 1896 accepted as Antipathes delicatula Schultze, 1896 (unaccepted > misspelling - incorrect subsequent spelling)
  92. Species Antipathes densiflora (Silberfeld, 1909) accepted as Cirrhipathes densiflora Silberfeld, 1909 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  93. Species Antipathes desbonni (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864) accepted as Allopathes desbonni (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864) (unaccepted > superseded combination, new combination)
  94. Species Antipathes dofleini Pax, 1915 accepted as Antipathes dubia (Brook, 1889)
  95. Species Antipathes ericoides Pallas, 1766 accepted as Arachnopathes ericoides (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  96. Species Antipathes erinaceus (Roule, 1905) accepted as Phanopathes erinaceus (Roule, 1905) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  97. Species Antipathes expansa Opresko & Cairns, 1992 accepted as Phanopathes expansa (Opresko & Cairns, 1992) (new combination)
  98. Species Antipathes felix Pourtalès, 1867 accepted as Distichopathes filix (Pourtalès, 1867) (unaccepted > misspelling - incorrect subsequent spelling)
  99. Species Antipathes fernandezi Pourtalès, 1874 accepted as Plumapathes fernandezi (Pourtalès, 1874) (new combination)
  100. Species Antipathes filix Pourtalès, 1867 accepted as Distichopathes filix (Pourtalès, 1867) (new combination)
  101. Species Antipathes fiordensis Grange, 1990 accepted as Antipathella fiordensis (Grange, 1990) (new combination)
  102. Species Antipathes flexibilis Gravier, 1919 accepted as Antipathes fragilis Gravier, 1918 (unaccepted > junior objective synonym)
  103. Species Antipathes glaberrima Esper, 1792 accepted as Leiopathes glaberrima (Esper, 1792) (original binomen)
  104. Species Antipathes glutinata Totton, 1923 accepted as Tylopathes glutinata (Totton, 1923) (putative new combination)
  105. Species Antipathes glutinosa Tott. accepted as Tylopathes glutinata (Totton, 1923) (unaccepted > misspelling - incorrect subsequent spelling)
  106. Species Antipathes gracilis Thomson & Simpson, 1905 accepted as Cupressopathes gracilis (Thomson & Simpson, 1905) (new combination)
  107. Species Antipathes gracilis Koch, 1889 accepted as Antipathes fragilis Gravier, 1918 (unaccepted > junior homonym)
  108. Species Antipathes heterorhodzos Cooper, 1909 accepted as Heliopathes heterorhodzos (Cooper, 1909) accepted as Heteropathes heterorhodzos (Cooper, 1909) (synonym)
  109. Species Antipathes hirta Gray, 1857 accepted as Tanacetipathes hirta (Gray, 1857) (new combination)
  110. Species Antipathes humilis Pourtalès, 1867 accepted as Acanthopathes humilis (Pourtalès, 1867) (unaccepted > superseded combination, new combination)
  111. Species Antipathes intermedia (Brook, 1889) accepted as Dendropathes intermedia (Brook, 1889) (new combination)
  112. Species Antipathes japonica Brook, 1889 accepted as Myriopathes japonica (Brook, 1889) (new combination)
  113. Species Antipathes larix Esper, 1788 accepted as Parantipathes larix (Esper, 1788) (new combination)
  114. Species Antipathes lata Silberfeld, 1909 accepted as Myriopathes lata (Silberfeld, 1909) (new combination)
  115. Species Antipathes lilliei Totton, 1923 accepted as Lillipathes lillei (Totton, 1923) (new combination)
  116. Species Antipathes mediterranea Brook, 1889 accepted as Antipathes dichotoma Pallas, 1766 (synonymy)
  117. Species Antipathes melancholica Duchassaing, 1870 accepted as Distichopathes filix (Pourtalès, 1867)
  118. Species Antipathes myriophylla Pallas, 1766 accepted as Myriopathes myriophylla (Pallas, 1766) (new combination)
  119. Species Antipathes panamensis Verrill, 1869 accepted as Myriopathes panamensis (Verrill, 1869) (new combination)
  120. Species Antipathes paniculata Esper, 1797 accepted as Cupressopathes paniculata (Esper, 1796) (new combination)
  121. Species Antipathes pedata Gray, 1857 accepted as Aphanipathes pedata (Gray, 1857) (new combination)
  122. Species Antipathes pennacea Pallas, 1766 accepted as Plumapathes pennacea (Pallas, 1766) (new combination)
  123. Species Antipathes picea Pourtalès, 1880 accepted as Tanacetipathes hirta (Gray, 1857) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  124. Species Antipathes pinnacea Pallas, 1766 accepted as Plumapathes pennacea (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > misspelling - incorrect subsequent spelling)
  125. Species Antipathes pluma Gray, 1857 accepted as Plumapathes pennacea (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  126. Species Antipathes pumila Brook, 1889 accepted as Cupressopathes pumila (Brook, 1889) (new combination)
  127. Species Antipathes punctata (Roule, 1905) accepted as Stauropathes punctata (Roule, 1905) (new combination)
  128. Species Antipathes pyramidata Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Hyalopathes pyramidata (Lamk.) M.-Edw. (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  129. Species Antipathes reticulata Esper, 1795 accepted as Rhipidipathes reticulata (Esper, 1795) (unaccepted > superseded combination, new combination)
  130. Species Antipathes rigida Pourtalès, 1880 accepted as Phanopathes rigida (Pourtalès, 1880) (new combination)
  131. Species Antipathes robillardi Bell, 1891 accepted as Allopathes robillardi (Bell, 1891) (new combination)
  132. Species Antipathes rugosa (Thomson & Simpson, 1905) accepted as Myriopathes rugosa (Thomson & Simpson, 1905) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  133. Species Antipathes salix Pourtalès, 1880 accepted as Aphanipathes salix (Pourtalès, 1880) (new combination)
  134. Species Antipathes sarothamnoides (Brook, 1889) accepted as Aphanipathes sarothamnoides Brook, 1889 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  135. Species Antipathes setacea Gray, 1860 accepted as Stichopathes setacea (Gray, 1860) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  136. Species Antipathes spinescens Gray, 1857 accepted as Tanacetipathes spinescens (Gray, 1857) (new combination)
  137. Species Antipathes spinosa (Carter, 1880) accepted as Myriopathes spinosa (Carter, 1880) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  138. Species Antipathes spiralis (Linnaeus, 1758) accepted as Cirrhipathes spiralis (Linnaeus, 1758) (unaccepted > superseded combination, new combination)
  139. Species Antipathes squamosa Koch, 1886 accepted as Tanacetipathes squamosa (Koch, 1886) (unaccepted > superseded combination, new combination)
  140. Species Antipathes strigosa (Brook, 1889) accepted as Antipathella strigosa Brook, 1889 (incorrect binomen)
  141. Species Antipathes subpinnata Ellis & Solander, 1786 accepted as Antipathella subpinnata (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (new combination)
  142. Species Antipathes tanacetum Pourtalès, 1880 accepted as Tanacetipathes tanacetum (Pourtalès, 1880) (new combination)
  143. Species Antipathes tenuispina (Silberfeld, 1909) accepted as Stylopathes tenuispina (Silberfeld, 1909)
  144. Species Antipathes tetrasticha Pourtalès, 1868 accepted as Parantipathes tetrasticha (Pourtalès, 1868) (unaccepted > superseded combination, new combination)
  145. Species Antipathes thamnea Warner, 1981 accepted as Tanacetipathes thamnea (Warner, 1981) (new combination)
  146. Species Antipathes thyoides Pourtalès, 1880 accepted as Acanthopathes thyoides (Pourtalès, 1880) (unaccepted > superseded combination, new combination)
  147. Species Antipathes ulex Ellis & Solander, 1786 accepted as Myriopathes ulex (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (new combination)
  148. Species Antipathes undulata van Pesch, 1914 accepted as Acanthopathes undulata (van Pesch, 1914) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  149. Species Antipathes valdiviae Pax, 1915 accepted as Leiopathes valdiviae (Pax, 1915) (new combination)
  150. Species Antipathes variegata Esper (unaccepted > nomen nudum)
  151. Species Antipathes verticillata (Brook, 1889) accepted as Aphanipathes verticillata Brook, 1889 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  152. Species Antipathes wollastoni Gray, 1857 accepted as Antipathella wollastoni (Gray, 1857) (new combination)
  153. Species Antipathes simpsoni (Summers, 1910) represented as Pteropathes simpsoni Summers, 1910
  154. Subgenus Antipathes (Cirrhipathes) (uncertain > unassessed)
  155. Subgenus Antipathes (Euantipathes) (uncertain > unassessed)
  156. Subgenus Antipathes (Rhipidipathes) (uncertain > unassessed)
    1. Species Antipathes (Rhipidipathes) tristis (Duchassaing, 1870) accepted as Antipathes tristis (Duchassaing, 1870) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  157. Species Antipathes alopecuroides Ellis & Solander, 1786 (uncertain > unassessed)
  158. Species Antipathes boscii Lamouroux, 1816 (uncertain > unassessed)
  159. Species Antipathes compressa Esper, 1797 (uncertain > unassessed)
  160. Species Antipathes corticata Lamarck, 1815 (uncertain > unassessed)
  161. Species Antipathes corticula Lamarck, 1816 (uncertain > unassessed, misspelling)
  162. Species Antipathes dissecta Duchassaing de Fombressin & Michelotti, 1864 (uncertain > unassessed)
  163. Species Antipathes eupteridea Lamouroux, 1824 (uncertain > unassessed)
  164. Species Antipathes flabellum Pallas, 1766 (uncertain > nomen dubium)
  165. Species Antipathes foeniculacea Pallas, 1766 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum, axis of gorgonian)
  166. Species Antipathes foeniculum Pallas, 1766 (uncertain > unassessed)
  167. Species Antipathes herdmanni Cooper, 1909 (uncertain > unassessed)
  168. Species Antipathes irregularis Verrill, 1928 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum, axis of gorgonian)
  169. Species Antipathes isidis-plocamos Klunzinger, 1877 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
  170. Species Antipathes lacera Lamarck, 1815 (uncertain > unassessed)
  171. Species Antipathes lacerata Lamarck, 1816 (uncertain > unassessed)
  172. Species Antipathes ligulata Esper, 1791 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum, axis of gorgonian)
  173. Species Antipathes mimosella Lamarck, 1815 (uncertain > unassessed)
  174. Species Antipathes orichalcea Pallas, 1766 (uncertain > unassessed)
  175. Species Antipathes pectinata Lamarck, 1816 (uncertain > unassessed)
  176. Species Antipathes pinnatifida Lamouroux, 1816 (uncertain > unassessed)
  177. Species Antipathes radians Lamarck, 1816 (uncertain > unassessed)
  178. Species Antipathes scoparia Lamarck, 1818 (uncertain > unassessed)
  179. Species Antipathes triquetra Bruguière, 1792 (uncertain > unassessed)
marine, terrestrial
Pallas, P. S. (1766). Elenchus zoophytorum sistens generum adumbrationes generaliores et specierum cognitarum succintas descriptiones, cum selectis auctorum synonymis. <em>[book].</em> pp. 451, Fransiscum Varrentrapp, Hagae., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/6019361 [details]  OpenAccess publication 
Molodtsova, T.; Opresko, D. (2024). World List of Antipatharia. Antipathes Pallas, 1766. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=103302 on 2024-05-29
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
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2005-04-07 07:57:24Z
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original description Pallas, P. S. (1766). Elenchus zoophytorum sistens generum adumbrationes generaliores et specierum cognitarum succintas descriptiones, cum selectis auctorum synonymis. <em>[book].</em> pp. 451, Fransiscum Varrentrapp, Hagae., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/6019361 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

basis of record van der Land, J.; Opresko, D.M. (2001). Antipatharia, <B><I>in</I></B>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,</i> 50: pp. 109 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Britton, J.C. & B. Morton, 1989. Shore ecology of the Gulf of Mexico : i-viii, 1-387.
page(s): 320, 345 [details]   

additional source Daly, M.M., Fautin D.G., Cappola V.A., 2003. Systematics of the Hexacorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 139 3: 419-437.
page(s): 424-425, 427-428 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Howson, C.M. & B.E. Picton. (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. <em>Ulster Museum Publication, 276. The Ulster Museum: Belfast, UK. ISBN 0-948150-06-8.</em> vi, 508 (+ cd-rom) pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Liu, J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. <em>China Science Press.</em> 1267 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source van Pesch, A. J. 1914. The Antipatharia of the Siboga Expedition.Siboga-Expeditie Monographes. 17: 1-258
page(s): 7, 69, 75 [details]   

additional source Cairns, S.D., L. Gershwin, F.J. Brook, P. Pugh, E.W. Dawson, O.V.; Ocaña, W. Vervoort, G. Williams, J.E. Watson, D.M. Opresko, P. Schuchert, P.M. Hine, D.P. Gordon, H.I. Campbell, A.J. Wright, J.A.Sánchez & D.G. Fautin. (2009). Phylum Cnidaria: corals, medusae, hydroids, myxozoans. <em>in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia.</em> pp. 59-101., available online at https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/8431 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Opresko, D.M. (1972). Redescriptions and reevaluations of the antipatharians described by L.D. de Pourtalès. <i>Bull. Mar. Sci.</i>. 22(4):950-1017.
page(s): 959-961 [details]   

additional source Pourtalès, L.F. de. (1868). Contributions to the fauna of the Gulf Stream at great depths (2d series). <em>Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, in Cambridge.</em> 1(7): 121-142., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/6587602
page(s): 133 [details]   

additional source Fenner, D. P. (2005). Corals of Hawai'i. A Field Guide to the Hard, Black, and Soft Corals of Hawai'i and the Northwest Hawaiian Islands, Including Midway. <em>Mutual Publishing, Ltd., Honolulu.</em> 144 pp.
page(s): 29, 99, 125 [details]   

additional source Fautin, D. G.; Kozloff, E. N.; Siebert, A. E. (1987). Phylum Cnidaria - Class Anthozoa. University of Washington Press. Seattle and London., pp. 68-78
page(s): 71 [details]   

additional source McMurrich, J. P. (1893). Report on the Actiniæ collected by the United States Fish Commission Steamer Albatross during the winter of 1887-1888. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 16(930): 119-216
page(s): 120-121 [details]   

additional source Paulay, G.; Puglisi, M. P.; Starmer, J. A. (2003). The non-scleractinian Anthozoa (Cnidaria) of the Mariana Islands. Micronesica, 35-36, 138-155
page(s): 149 [details]   

additional source Grasshoff, M. (1981). Die Gorgonaria, Pennatularia und Antipatharia des Tiefwassers der Biskaya (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Ergebnisse der französischen Expeditionen Biogas, Polygas, Geomanche, Incal, Noratlante und Fahrten der "Thalassa" II. Taxonomischer Teil. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris), 3, zoologie, section A, (4): 941-978
page(s): 963 [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Van-Praët, M.; Doumenc, D. A. (1987). Ordre des Antipathaires. volume 3, pp. 189-210
page(s): 196 [details]   

additional source Grasshoff, M. (1981). Die Gorgonaria, Pennatularia und Antipatharia des Tiefwassers der Biskaya (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Ergebnisse der französischen Expeditionen Biogas, Polygas, Geomanche, Incal, Noratlante und Fahrten der "Thalassa" II. Allgemeiner Teil. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris), 3, zoologie, section A, (3): 731-766
page(s): 742, 761 [details]   

additional source Echeverría, C. A.; Castro, C. B. (1995). Antipathes (Cnidaria, Antipatharia) From Southeastern Brazil. Boletim do Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro), (364): 1-7
page(s): 3, 4 [details]   

additional source Loiola, L. L.; Castro, C. B. (2001). Three new records of Antipatharia (Cnidaria) from Brazil, including the first record of a Schizopathidae. Boletim do Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro), (455): 1-10
page(s): 1 [details]   

additional source Grigg, R. W.; Opresko, D. M. (1977). Order Antipatharia: black corals. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin, 64(1): 242-261
page(s): 244, 251, 253 [details]   

additional source Grasshoff, M. (1985). Die Gorgonaria, Pennatularia und Antipatharia. L. Laubier and Cl. Monniot (eds.). IFREMER, chapter 17, pp. 299-307
page(s): 303 [details]   

additional source Studer T. (1879). Übersicht der Anthozoa Alcyonaria, welche während der Reise S.M.S. Gazelle um die Erde gesammelt wurden. <em>Monatsberichte der könglich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin.</em> 1878, 632-688.
page(s): 681 [details]   

additional source Reed, J. K.; Pomponi, S. A.; Weaver, D. C.; Paull, C. K.; Wright, A. E. (2005). Deep-water sinkholes and bioherms of south Florida and the Pourtalès Terrace - habitat and fauna. Bulletin of Marine Science, 77(2): 267-296
page(s): 276 [details]   

additional source Williams, G. C. (1993). Coral Reef Octocorals: An Illustrated Guide to the Soft Corals, Sea Fans and Sea Pens Inhabiting the Coral Reefs of Northern Natal. Durban Natural Science Museum. Durban., pp. 63.
page(s): 8 [details]   

additional source Belcik, F. P. (1977). A distribution study of the Octocorallia of Oregon. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 24(1-3): 49-52
page(s): 52 [details]   

additional source Reed, J. K.; Weaver, D. C.; Pomponi, S. A. (2006). Habitat and fauna of deep-water Lophelia pertusa coral reefs off the southeastern U.S.: Blake Plateau, Straits of Florida, and Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science, 78, 2, 343-375
page(s): 361, 362, 367 [details]   

additional source Okey, T. A.; Banks, S.; Born, A. F.; Bustamante, R. H.; Calvopiña, M.; Edgar, G. J.; Espinoza, E.; Fariña, J. M.; Garske, L. E.; Reck, G. K.; Salazar, S.; Shepherd, S. A.; Toral-Granda, V.; Wallem, P. (2004). A trophic model of a Galápagos subtidal rocky reef for evaluating fisheries and conservation strategies. Ecological Modelling, 172, 383-401
page(s): 386 [details]   

additional source Wagner, D.; Papastamatiou, Y. P.; Kosaki, R. K.; Gleason, K. A.; McFall, G. B.; Boland, R. C.; Pyle, R. L.; Toonen, R. J. (2011). New records of commercially valuable black corals (Cnidaria: Antipatharia) from the northwestern Hawaiian Islands at mesophotic depths. Pacific Science, 65(2): 249-255
page(s): 251 [details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
From other sources
Habitat Known from seamounts and knolls [details]
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